Catalytic activities, protein- and mRNA-expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in intestinal cell lines.
Lampen A. Bader A. Bestmann T. Winkler M. Witte L. Borlak JT.
Institut fur Lebensmitteltoxikologie, Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, Germany.
1. Certain chemicals and drugs in addition to metabolically activated carcinogens are substrates for intestinal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and a number of cell lines are available which could be used in metabolism studies. These include the rat duodenal cell line IEC 6, rat ileal IEC 18, foetal human HuTu 80, foetal human small intestinal FHS 74, human duodenal HCT 8 and human colon CaCo-2 cells, but they lack thorough biochemical characterization. 2. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C9/10, CYP2E1 and CYP3A. In addition, the metabolism of the immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus and of the procarcinogen 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was studied to obtain information on the functional activity on these cell lines. 3. Of all the cell lines tested only CaCo-2 cells expressed CYP1A1 at the protein and mRNA level, but the CYP2E1 and CYP3A protein was also detected in CaCo-2 and FHS 74 cells. It is of considerable interest that none of the other cell lines expressed CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C9/10 or CYP3A4 at the protein and mRNA level. 4. When the metabolism of DMBA (a model carcinogen) was studied, CaCo-2 cells produced the following metabolites: 7,12-dihydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene-di-hydrodiol, 7-methyl-12-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene, 7-hydroxy-methyl-12-benz[a]anthracene and possibly the dihydrated product of the latter two derivatives. 5. CaCo-2 cells also catalysed the metabolism of the immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus resulting in the formation of 13-O-demethyl-tacrolimus bisdemethyl-hydroxy-tacrolimus and demethyl-dihydroxy-tacrolimus. Neither the foetal human small intestinal FHS 74 cell line nor any of the other cell lines were able to catalyse the biotransformation of tacrolimus. 6. In conclusion, only CaCo-2 cells were able to produce metabolites similar to those observed in in vivo metabolism studies, whereas all other cell lines were metabolically incompetent. Therefore, this cell line may be used in studies of intestinal biotransformation.