Antibiotic therapy for abdominal infection.
Department of Surgery, Wellesley Central Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Abdominal infections are treated by resuscitation, abdominal drainage, control of the source of infection, and antimicrobial agents. Ideally, antimicrobial therapy is active against expected pathogens, safe and effective in clinical trials, inexpensive, and unlikely to promote drug resistance. Numerous single-agent and combination-drug regimens have been efficacious in clinical trials, based on coverage of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species, the predominant pathogens isolated. Whether expanded antimicrobial coverage is required, especially in hospital-acquired infections, is controversial. Candida infections should be treated with antifungal therapy in patients with recurrent abdominal infections, immunosuppressed patients, and those with candidal abscesses. Most agents have few serious adverse effects; aminoglycosides are the least expensive agents but cause nephro- and ototoxicity. There is little information on the promotion of drug resistance in this condition. Recent developments include the introduction of ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/ sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, aztreonam/clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin/metronidazole; success with once-daily aminoglycosides; evidence that antibiotics limit infectious complications of pancreatitis; controversy over the value of diagnostic cultures; the use of oral therapy; evidence in favor of shorter courses of treatment; and the introduction of pharmacoeconomic studies. Clinical investigators are challenged to improve drug trials by stratifying and controlling for the adequacy of surgical intervention.
Tertiary peritonitis: clinical features of a complex nosocomial infection.
Nathens AB. Rotstein OD. Marshall JC.
Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The objective of this study was to define risk factors for and the clinical course of recurrent or tertiary peritonitis. Intensive supportive care of patients with life-threatening intraabdominal infections has led to the emergence of a new clinical syndrome, tertiary peritonitis, defined as the persistence or recurrence of intraabdominal infection following apparently adequate therapy of primary or secondary peritonitis. We undertook a retrospective study of 59 patients admitted with intraabdominal infection to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU). Tertiary peritonitis developed in 74% (44/59) of patients. Despite comparable premorbid health status, source of peritonitis, and admission APACHE II scores, patients with tertiary peritonitis had a significantly longer ICU stay (21.8 +/- 14.9 vs. 8.5 +/- 7.9 days), more advanced organ dysfunction reflected in higher organ dysfunction scores (13.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 7.7 +/- 3.3), and higher ICU mortality (64% vs. 33%) than patients with uncomplicated secondary peritonitis. The most common infecting organisms in patients with tertiary peritonitis were Enterococcus, Candida, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterobacter. Infectious foci were rarely amenable to percutaneous drainage and were found to be poorly localized at laparotomy. Recurrent, or tertiary, peritonitis is a common complication of intraabdominal infection in patients admitted to an ICU. It differs from uncomplicated secondary peritonitis in its microbial flora and lack of response to appropriate surgical and antibiotic therapy. Like nosocomial pneumonia in the critically ill patient, the syndrome appears to be more a reflection than a cause of adverse outcome.
Roles of nitric oxide in surgical infection and sepsis.
Johnson ML. Billiar TR.
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian University Hospital, PA 15213, USA.
Recent advances in nitric oxide (NO) research have begun to elucidate the roles of NO in sepsis and infection. Although adequate levels of NO production are necessary to preserve perfusion and carry out cytoprotective functions in sepsis, overproduction appears to contribute to hemodynamic instability and tissue damage. These observations have led to the development of strategies to inhibit NO synthesis or scavenge excess NO in patients with septic shock. Local expression of the inducible NO synthase also has antimicrobial functions. The combination of NO with superoxide forms peroxynitrite which participates in bacterial killing in the peritoneal cavity. The capacity of red blood cells and hemoglobin to remove NO most likely accounts for the adjuvant effect of blood in peritonitis. This review will summarize the pathobiology of NO in surgical sepsis and infection.
Uncommon sites of hydatid disease.
Prousalidis J. Tzardinoglou K. Sgouradis L. Katsohis C. Aletras H.
First Propedeutic Surgical Clinic, Aristotelian University, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Echinococcosis remains an endemic surgical problem in many Mediterranean countries. We report our experience with such cases when the disease is located in uncommon sites, outside the liver and lungs. This study was an effort similar to a previous one but with more cases and additional information. Between 1967 and 1994 a total of 49 patients suffering from hydatid cysts located in various organs other than the liver and lungs presented to our clinic. There were 28 men and 21 women, with their ages ranging from 10 to 66 years and 22 to 80 years, respectively. Among these patients, 25 had the parasitic cyst in the peritoneal cavity, 10 in the spleen, 5 in the kidney, 3 in the spinal column, 2 in the retroperitoneal space, 1 in the abdominal wall, 1 in the myocardium, 1 in the thoracic wall, and 1 in the thigh. Their hospital stay was 9 to 88 days (average 27 days). Only two patients--one with cardiac hydatidosis and one with spinal hydatidosis--died postoperatively. Three patients with multiple cysts in the peritoneum and one with cysts in the thigh had recurrences of the disease and were reoperated successfully.
Role of Helicobacter pylori in residual gastritis after distal partial gastrectomy.
Yamamoto S. Yamasaki Y. Kuwata K. Yamasaki H. Nishida Y. Kobayashi Y.
Department of Surgery, Osaka Koseinenkin Hospital, Japan.
We studied the relation between Helicobacter pylori and residual gastritis in 28 patients with gastric cancer on whom distal partial gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction was performed over a 13-month period. They were subjected to serologic testing along with endoscopic and histologic examinations before operation and at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation. Anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum gastrin levels were measured by serologic tests. The presence or absence of gastritis was determined endoscopically, and gastric mucosal hexosamine levels were determined. Gastritis was measured quantitatively by histologic examination in specimens taken from the gastric mucosa using Rauws' score. After the initial histologic evaluation we divided the H. pylori-positive patients into two groups: those with a Rauws' score of 0 to 3 ("weak" gastritis group), and those with a Rauws' score of 4 to 10 ("strong" gastritis group), allowing us to compare the results of our three postoperative histologic examinations of the two groups for possible significant differences. Our endoscopic examinations showed gastric mucosal inflammatory changes in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation, but there was no significant difference between these two groups at any point. During the histologic examinations, however, anti-H. pylori IgG assay had become negative in several patients in the "weak" gastritis group at 3 months after operation and was found to have become negative in 78% of all patients in that group 12 months after operation. In contrast, in the "strong" gastritis group H. pylori infection was still evident in the patients 12 months after operation, suggesting that "strong" histologic gastritis may have some connection to H. pylori infection, whereas "weak" histologic gastritis has no such connection. The gastric mucosal hexosamine level was higher in the "weak" gastritis group than in the "strong" gastritis group both before operation and at 6 and 12 months, indicating some relation between gastric inflammatory changes and hexosamine levels in gastric mucosa. It further suggested the possibility that H. pylori plays a role in destroying gastric mucosa by depleting mucin, thus acting as one (though not the only) cause of residual gastritis after distal partial gastrectomy. In conclusion, we found evidence that there is a relation between residual gastritis and H. pylori infection, but H. pylori is not the sole cause of residual gastritis after gastric surgery. A causal relation is difficult to detect by simple analysis of histologic findings or by endoscopic observation or clinical symptoms alone.
Physiologic effects of cisapride on gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer.
Tomita R. Takizawa H. Tanjoh K.
Department of First Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) has been considered reasonable reduction surgery. However, even patients in whom more than 1 year passed after surgery frequently have a feeling of gastric fullness after meals and long-term retention of foods in the residual stomach. To treat this syndrome, cisapride has been administered. We studied the emptying time of a semisolid diet (radioisotope method using 99mTc-tin colloid-labeled rice gruel) and the emptying time of a fluid diet (acetaminophen method with orange juice) before and after oral administration of cisapride (15 mg/day for 1 month) in 14 patients (10 men, 4 women; 32-70 years old, average 60.6 years) who underwent PPG (Billroth I procedure, D2 lymph node dissection, curability A) for treatment of early gastric cancer. Ten healthy volunteers without gastrointestinal symptoms and digestive diseases (7 men, 3 women; 28-61 years old, average 49.8 years) were enrolled as controls. The results showed obviously delayed emptying time of the semisolid diet before administration of cisapride in patients with PPG compared with that of the control group, whereas the emptying curves for the fluid diet showed an almost normal pattern. One month after the start of cisapride administration the emptying time of the semisolid diet was improved, and the emptying curves were close to the patterns in the control group. Emptying of the fluid diet was slightly accelerated compared with that before administration of cisapride, and the emptying curves showed almost the same pattern as in the control group. A postgastrectomy symptom, "gastric fullness," after PPG was alleviated by cisapride. These results showed that cisapride improved delayed emptying of a semisolid diet after PPG and prevented the feeling of gastric fullness after meals due to retention in the residual stomach.
Surgical and radiologic treatment of primary Budd-Chiari syndrome.
Pisani-Ceretti A. Intra M. Prestipino F. Ballarini C. Cordovana A. Santambrogio R. Spina GP.
Second Divisione di Chirurgia Generale, Ospedale Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Milan, Italy.
Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon form of portal hypertension caused by obstruction of the hepatic venous outflow. From 1969 to 1997 we treated 19 patients (7 men, 12 women; mean age 37.6 years) affected by primary BCS. In most of the cases no etiologic factors were identified; in the remaining cases the etiology was associated with polycythemia vera, use of oral contraceptives, presence of endoluminal membranes, and repeated episodes of sepsis. Three patients with membranous occlusion of the major hepatic veins were treated by percutaneous placement of a self-expanding metallic stent inserted via a transjugular or transhepatic approach. The remaining 16 patients underwent a side-to-side portacaval shunt, which required interposition of a graft in five cases. In two patients with a significant caval obstruction, a metallic vascular stent was placed in the narrowed tract of the inferior vena cava, before shunting, by means of a transfemoral venous approach. One patient died within the first 30 postoperative days. The 18 survivors were followed for a mean of 66.7 months. The 5-year survival was 83%. Primary BCS requires different therapies depending on the stage of the disease. The fulminant or chronic forms with irreversible hepatic damage require definitive treatment, such as orthotopic liver transplantation. For the acute or subacute forms, characterized by reversible hepatic injury, a portasystemic shunt represents the most effective treatment. The patients at poor hepatic risk can be treated by interventional radiology. In both cases preliminary caval stenting is necessary if the syndrome is complicated by significant obstruction of the inferior vena cava.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis during infancy and childhood: cost analysis and review of current indications.
Jawad AJ. Kurban K. el-Bakry A. al-Rabeeah A. Seraj M. Ammar A.
Department of Surgery, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Eleven consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs) were performed between January 1994 and June 1996 compared with seven open cholecystectomies (OCs) performed previously at King Khalid University Hospital. The comparison included surgical, clinical, and economic factors, together with a review of the literature. In the laparoscopic group the main indication for cholecystectomy was symptomatic gallstones. Other indications include mucocele of the gallbladder and chronic cholecystitis. A total of eight children in both group had sickle cell disease. The first two LCs were performed in the presence of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon. There is a learning curve to pass through with LC. The operating time for LC ranged between 65 and 135 minutes (mean +/- SD 89.81 +/- 21.89 minutes). There was no major morbidity or mortality. The average postoperative parenteral analgesia required for LC (50.45 +/- 24.57 mg) was significantly less than for OC (135.14 +/- 62.02 mg), and the mean length of hospitalization for LC was significantly shorter than that for OC (1.68 +/- 0.46 vs. 6.07 +/- 0.30) days. Although the average operative cost per LC (2522 SR) was significantly more expensive than for OC (350 SR), the ultimate cost of LC was significantly less than for OC (5790.00 +/- 787 vs. 12,343 +/- 139 SR) because the total period of hospitalization was much shorter. In conclusion, LC is safe, effective, and less expensive than OC and therefore is the approach of choice for cholecystectomy in children.
Preoperative ultrasonography and prediction of technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Daradkeh SS. Suwan Z. Abu-Khalaf M.
Department of General Surgery, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan.
A prospective study was carried out to investigate the value of preoperative ultrasound findings for predicting difficulties encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Altogether 160 consecutive patients with symptomatic gallbladder (GB) disease (130 females, 30 males) referred to the Jordan University Hospital were recruited for the purpose of this study. All patients underwent detailed ultrasound examination 24 hours prior to LC. The overall difficulty score (ODS), as a dependent variable, was based on the following operative parameters: duration of surgery, bleeding, dissection of Calot's triangle, dissection of gallbladder wall, adhesions, spillage of bile, spillage of stone, and difficulty of gallbladder extraction. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the significance of the following preoperative ultrasound variables (independent) for predicting the variation in the ODS: size of the GB, number of GB stones, size of stones, location of GB stones, thickness of GB wall, common bile duct (CBD) diameter, and liver size. Only thickness of GB wall and CBD diameter were found to be significant predictors of the variation in the ODS (adjusted R2 = 0.25). We conclude that the preoperative ultrasound examination is of value for predicting difficulties encountered during LC, but it is not the sole predictor.
Role of nitric oxide in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis.
Tomita R. Tanjoh K.
First Department of Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
The cause of impaired motility, such as diarrhea and toxic megacolon, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be a neurotransmitter in the nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) inhibitory nerves in the human gut. To assess the physiologic significance of NO in the colon of patients with UC, we investigated enteric nerve responses on lesional and normal bowel segments derived from patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 6) and patients who underwent colon resection for colonic cancers (n = 10). A mechanographic technique was used to evaluate in vitro muscle responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves before and after treatment with various autonomic nerve blockers, including NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and L-arginine. The results showed that (1) NANC inhibitory nerves were found to act on both normal colon and UC colon; (2) the colon with UC was more strongly innervated by NANC inhibitory nerves than the normal colon; (3) L-NNA concentration-dependently inhibited the relaxation in response to EFS in the colon of both normal and UC colon; and (4) this inhibitory effect in the colon of both normal and UC patients was reversed by L-arginine; (5) NO acts more strongly in the UC colon than the normal colon. These findings suggest that NANC inhibitory nerves play an important role in the impaired motility observed in patients with UC and that NO plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in NANC inhibitory nerves of human colon.
Surgery for nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis.
Sharma AK. Pande GK. Sahni P. Nundy S.
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
There are few reports on operations in patients with nonalcoholic pancreatitis. Between 1985 and 1995 we operated on 58 such patients, 38 of whom were male and 20 female with a mean age of 35 years (range 5-72 years). The indications for operation were pain (n = 49), biliary obstruction (n = 12), duodenal obstruction (n = 10), portal hypertension (n = 11), cysts (n = 14), and pancreatic ascites (n = 3). Thirty-four patients with a dilated pancreatic duct underwent pancreaticojejunostomy; cysts were drained internally in eight, and biliary and duodenal obstruction was bypassed. Ten patients also underwent surgery for portal hypertension. Four (7%) patients died during the postoperative period. Of the remaining 54 patients, 48 (89%) were followed up for a median period of 63 months (range 6 months to 10 years). Six died: four of pancreatic cancer, one of cerebrovascular accident, and one of malnutrition. Of the 34 surviving patients operated for pain, 30 (88%) felt better, of whom 24 (71%) had complete relief of pain; 14 (41%) recorded a weight gain. Pancreatic decompression results in immediate and lasting pain relief in most patients with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis.
Assessment of risk factors for pancreatic resection for cancer.
Crucitti F. Doglietto GB. Viola G. Frontera D. De Cosmo G. Sgadari A. Vicari D. Rizzi A.
Department of Surgery, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.
A series of 101 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic resection for cancer was retrospectively analyzed to define factors that may affect the immediate postoperative outcome. Overall morbidity and mortality were 28.7% and 10.9%, respectively, although these figures were greatly reduced during the last years; the complication rate dropped from 55.6% (1981-1987) to 20.0% (1993-1995) and the mortality from 16.7% to 6.7%. At univariate statistical analysis the patient characteristics (sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] class, nutritional status, jaundice), tumor characteristics (site, size, TNM stage, and grading), and type of surgery were found not to affect postoperative morbidity and mortality. In contrast, a significantly lower rate of complications was observed in patients not undergoing gastric resection, in those who received 3 units or less of blood intraoperatively, and in subjects operated more recently (after 1990). At multivariate analysis the period when the operation was performed was the only independent variable that affected the immediate postoperative outcome. Among the examined factors, only the experience acquired over time regarding the intra- and perioperative treatment of these patients seems able to lower the rate of postoperative complications.
Lack of survival benefit of extended lymph node dissection for ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas: retrospective multi-institutional analysis in Japan.
Mukaiya M. Hirata K. Satoh T. Kimura M. Yamashiro K. Ura H. Oikawa I. Denno R.
First Department of Surgery, Sapporo Medical University, School of Medicine, Japan.
It has not been established that extended lymph node resection is necessary for ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas. According to the general rules for the study of pancreatic cancer, a multiinstitutional, retrospective clinical study was undertaken to investigate the efficiency of extended lymph node dissection for this malignancy. Altogether 501 patients underwent resection of the pancreas between 1991 and 1994 at 77 medical facilities; the surgical procedures, staging, lymph node dissection, curability, and survival rate were analyzed retrospectively. Eighteen of the patients died within 30 postoperative days, leaving 483 patients to be studied. The resection was curative microscopically in 94 patients, resulting in a 3-year survival of 29%. Macroscopically curative resection resulted in a 3-year survival of 14%; noncurative resection produced a 3-year survival of 6%. Although extended lymph node dissection was performed on 38 patients in stage I, 42 patients in stage II, 206 patients in stage III, and 1 patient in stage IV, there was no improvement in survival when the results were compared to those seen after standard or palliative lymph node dissection. The extent of lymph node dissection has not affected the prognosis for ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas at any stage of the course of the disease. Excessive lymph node dissection in advanced cases does not necessarily lead to a favorable prognosis. The patients who undergo a radical operation with an adequate lymph node dissection have longer survivals.
Nutritional status of gastric cancer patients after total gastrectomy.
Bae JM. Park JW. Yang HK. Kim JP.
Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Ewha Women's University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
A number of causes of malnutrition after total gastrectomy have been proposed. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and to determine the cause of malnutrition after total gastrectomy. We studied 20 gastric cancer patients who had undergone total gastrectomy and immunochemotherapy and 6 normal controls. Nutritional status was assessed by dietary history, anthropometric methods, and serologic measurements. Malabsorption tests included the fecal fat excretion test, D-xylose absorption test, glucose tolerance test, vitamin B12 absorption test using dual isotopes, bacterial culture of jejunal aspirates, and jejunal biopsy. Weight loss was compared to the preoperative status in all patients (average 15%: 59.0 +/- 9.9 vs. 50.2 +/- 7.8 kg, preoperatively vs. postoperatively). Average daily calorie intake was 1586.2 kcal, which is lower than the normal intake of Korean adults (1838 kcal). Malnutrition of skeletal and visceral protein was not found. There was, however, severe fat malnutrition and a deficit of body fat. Postoperatively the body mass index was considerably lower than that preoperatively (22.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 18.9 +/- 0.4 kg/m2; preoperatively vs. postoperatively). With malabsorption tests, the daily excreted amount of fecal fat was 28.6 +/- 3.4 g (mean +/- SD) in patients and 6.9 +/- 0.2 g in controls. There was no significant malabsorption of carbohydrates. In 64.3% (9/14) of patients, vitamin B12 absorption was abnormal; and the serum concentration of vitamin B12, which was significantly related to malabsorption of this vitamin, was lower than normal in 73.7% (14/19). Bacterial overgrowth was not found, and there were no abnormal histologic findings in the jejunal mucosa. These results suggest that poor oral intake and fat malabsorption following total gastrectomy cause malnutrition and that fat malabsorption may be related to relative pancreatic insufficiency.
Effect of hepatic invasion on the choice of hepatic resection for advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder: histologic analysis of 32 surgical cases.
Ogura Y. Tabata M. Kawarada Y. Mizumoto R.
First Department of Surgery, Mie University School of Medicine, Japan.
The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns of hepatic invasion in advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder by histologically examining surgical specimens obtained in 32 cases of hepatectomy for that carcinoma. Two modes of microscopic tumor extension were observed. The expansive pattern was restricted to liver-bed carcinomas, in which the tumor extends into the liver, primarily from the liver bed. Most of the infiltrating patterns were found with hepatic-hilar carcinomas, in which the tumor invades the hepatic hilum along Glisson's sheath, especially tumors exhibiting a discontinuous front of tumor invasion. The average width for wedge resection of the liver bed was 15.6 +/- 2.9 mm, in contrast to 25.6 +/- 8.1 mm for resection of segments IVa and V and 44.1 +/- 10.3 mm for extensive hepatic resection (both p < 0.01). When the hepatic invasion distance is more than 20 mm, the tumor should be selectively managed by extensive hepatic resection, such as extended right hepatic lobectomy or central bisegmentectomy. The results suggest that wedge resection of the liver bed and resection of segments IVa and V are advisable for carcinoma localized to the gallbladder alone and for liver-bed carcinoma with slight hepatic invasion and an expansive tumor growth pattern. Extensive hepatic resection, however, is recommended for carcinoma of the invasive liver-bed type and carcinoma of the hepatic-hilar type.
Resection of colorectal liver metastases: 25-year experience.
Ohlsson B. Stenram U. Tranberg KG.
Department of Surgery, University of Lund, Sweden.
The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze survival and prognostic factors in 111 consecutive patients undergoing curative resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. In addition, the time periods 1971-1984 and 1985-1995 were compared; criteria for first liver resection did not change with time, whereas the attitude toward re-resection was more aggressive during the latter period. Operative mortality was 6% during 1971-1984 and 0% during 1985-1995 (3.6% for all patients). The crude 5-year actuarial survivals were 19% and 35% for patients operated during 1971-1984 and 1985-1995, respectively (25% for the whole period). Relapse at any site was observed in 52 patients (81%) operated during the first period and in 29 patients (67%) operated during the second period; re-resection was performed in 12 (23%) and 15 (52%) of these patients, respectively. Five-year survival after hepatic re-resection was 29% (no operative mortality). In the univariate analysis, significant determinants for long-term survival were, in descending order, a clear resection margin, high degree of fibrosis around the tumor, absence of extrahepatic metastases (including metastases to the liver hilum), use of an ultrasound dissector, low preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, year of resection (1985-1995), and low/moderate grade of liver tumor. There were no 5-year survivors when extrahepatic metastases were present, the liver tumor(s) had a low differentiation or satellites, or the resection margin was involved with tumor. In the multivariate analysis, the determinants were grade of liver tumor, absence of extrahepatic tumor, few intraoperative blood transfusions, low preoperative serum CEA level, and year of resection (1985-1995). It is concluded that: (1) an increased rate of hepatic re-resection was partly responsible for the improved outcome after liver resection for colorectal metastases during recent years; (2) patients with extrahepatic metastases did not benefit from liver resection; and (3) surgery should be performed with a clear resection margin and minimal blood loss.
Preoperative diagnosis and surgical management of neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors: general recommendations by a consensus workshop.
Wiedenmann B. Jensen RT. Mignon M. Modlin CI. Skogseid B. Doherty G. Oberg K.
Freie Universitat Berlin, Universitatsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Abteilung Innere Medizin/Gastroenterologie und Infektiologie, Germany.
In 1996 a consensus workshop on the preoperative diagnosis and surgical treatment of neuroendocrine tumor disease took place in Berlin. Although there was a consensus on the diagnosis and surgical treatment by world experts in neuroendocrine surgery in some areas, it became clear that certain management policies vary among centers. In large part, diverging policies reflect a lack of controlled studies. This paper summarizes the various opinions brought forward during this conference and emphasizes consensus approaches for the diagnosis and therapy of neuroendocrine neoplasms.
Typhoid intestinal perforations in Nigerian children.
Meier DE. Tarpley JL.
Department of Surgery, Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
This study was a retrospective analysis of 75 children with perforated typhoid enteritis treated at the Baptist Medical Centre in Ogbomoso, Nigeria over a 4-year period. The mean age was 11.4 years. The usual symptoms were fever and abdominal pain, with a mean duration of 10.5 days. The diagnosis of perforation was usually based on the history and physical examination alone. The time interval from hospital presentation to operation was 11 hours, during which intravenous crystalloid and antibiotics were administered. Among the 75 children, 53 (71%) had a single perforation, and 22 had multiple perforations. Debridement and two-layered closure was performed in 71 (95%) and resection with anastomosis in 4 (5%). Ileus resolution was usually not complete until the eighth postoperative day, and the mean time until the surviving children were afebrile was 10 days. Complications other than death occurred in 7 (9%) children, and there were 15 deaths (20% mortality). All deaths were attributed to overwhelming sepsis, and all but one of the deaths occurred during the first 72 postoperative hours. The only factor statistically significant as a predictor of mortality was the duration of abdominal pain. Improvement in perioperative management including intensive care nursing and more effective antibiotics, although expensive, could result in decreased mortality. A significant decrease in mortality can occur only when the prevention of typhoid fever becomes a higher priority than its treatment.
Proctocolectomy and ileostomy to pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis.
Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden.
The development of continence-preserving and sphincter-preserving procedures for operation of ulcerative colitis has a long and interesting history. Reported clinical results on the continent ileostomy (Kock pouch) and the pelvic pouch procedure have often been enthusiastic; and when confronted with the options patients have mostly been in no doubt in selecting "the best operation." However, even if the continent ileostomy and subsequently restorative proctocolectomy were great innovations, it is by no means obvious that they should be recommended as the first choice for all patients. For patients old enough to join in a responsible discussion the pros and cons of the various operations available today must first be carefully described and a decision reached that reasonably meets the patient's wishes and that seems to the surgeon to be soundly based. When comparing the postoperative morbidity, long-term outcome, and quality of life assessment of the options, such a decision is in fact far from easy. Thus panproctocolectomy and ileostomy for ulcerative colitis can be considered a comparatively safe, predictable operation that can cure the patient and allow a short hospital stay, a quick recovery, and rehabilitation. It should also enable the patient to be free of hospital supervision after a year or so. Although there is a major change in body image and sexual disturbances may occur, the operation is in fact still the yardstick by which the other options should be compared. Despite the great attraction of rectum- and sphincter-preserving operations, there will always be patients for whom panproctocolectomy and a conventional end-ileostomy is the superior alternative. The ileal pouch operations are technically demanding and should probably best be restricted to specialist centers even in the future. Complications, if they arise, are often serious, and the hospital stay is often counted in weeks. The functional result may be good, but defects in continence are common and sexual dysfunction is a problem for many of these patients. The pouchitis syndrome is a great disappointment, and recent reports on subsequent epithelial dysplasia and even development of cancer are alarming. The long-term results are in this respect still uncertain. Careful patient selection, with full discussion with the patient and his or her family are essential before a decision on a continent ileostomy or a pelvic pouch is reached. Strong motivation toward avoidance of a conventional ileostomy is important. When compared with the imperfect functional results and the high morbidity associated with the pelvic pouch procedure, there is at present a great revival of interest for total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. It is still a useful operation and should be seriously considered particularly in the young. The functional results are comparatively good. Sexual function is well preserved. The use of the operation may enable the teenager to regain good health and finish education and family planning. Due to the cancer risk the need for subsequent supervision must be made clear, however. The operation may also be valuable in elderly patients who would be much bothered by an ileostomy and who are unlikely to live long enough for carcinoma to become a problem. The great advantage is that should a failure occur the other options remain.
Reconstructive surgery for pelvic pouches.
Cohen Z. Smith D. McLeod R.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Centre, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis has become the elective surgical procedure of choice for most of our patients with ulcerative colitis and for selected patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. This report reviews the results of the outcome of patients who have undergone a more radical reconstructive approach for salvage of the pelvic pouch where multiple local procedures have failed. A group of 24 patients were reviewed (19 females, 5 males). The indication for surgery was ulcerative colitis in 22 patients; 10 of the 24 patients were referred from other centers. The 24 patients underwent a mean of 2.9 local salvage procedures per patient. Of the 19 females within the group, 12 had an anastomotic vaginal fistula. The 24 patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 14 patients whose initial pouch was used once again for revisionary surgery. Group 2 comprised 10 patients whose initial pouch was removed and a redo pouch was constructed. Of the 24 patients, only 2 have had their pouches removed. More than 75% of the patients have had a successful outcome using a reconstructive approach. Four patients still have an ileostomy; of these four, two are awaiting closure of their loop ileostomy. Of 18 patients who were evaluable, 13 were considered to have normal daytime continence, and 17 of 18 were sexually functional. Of the 18 evaluable patients, 15 were satisfied with the outcome. Radical reconstructive surgery can be performed where local procedures to effect pouch salvage have failed, and it should be considered as a first-line management where factors dictate that local procedures might fail. The commitment of the surgeon and the patient to achieving a successful outcome is essential. Severe pouch-specific complications can be managed successfully by surgeons who have a specific interest in pelvic pouch surgery and have considerable experience dealing with complications that arise.
Pouchitis: risk factors, etiology, and treatment.
Nicholls RJ. Banerjee AK.
Department of Surgery, St. Mark's Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, UK.
A Medline literature review of pouchitis has been conducted, and relevant information from this search and the authors' own experience has been used to produce an overview on pouchitis at the current time. Particular attention is given to etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management.
Cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: bias, epidemiology, surveillance, and treatment.
Solomon MJ. Schnitzler M.
Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Individuals with chronic ulcerative colitis are at increased risk of developing colorectal carcinoma, particularly if there is long-standing disease or extensive colitis. It is generally accepted that the risk of colorectal cancer does not begin until 8 to 10 years after the time of diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Thereafter it increases by approximately 0.5% to 1.0% per year. In patients with Crohn's disease, the risk of malignancy is smaller and less well defined. The most significant predictor of the risk of malignancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is the presence of dysplasia in colonic biopsies. There is considerable controversy in the literature regarding the efficacy of colonoscopic surveillance programs and the role of prophylactic surgery to prevent colorectal cancer. Surveillance certainly fails to detect carcinoma in some patients who are having regular colonoscopy. Concerns have also been raised as to the cost-benefit of colonoscopic surveillance in patients with colitis. Randomized controlled trials of surveillance programs are highly unlikely in view of the low prevalence of IBD in the population, the long period of observation required, and the probability of contamination of surveillance programs by colonoscopy for assessment of disease activity. Despite the lack of clear guidelines, surveillance colonoscopy and biopsy continues to be widely practiced. Research is proceeding to identify genetic and biochemical markers that may prove clinically useful for predicting cancer risk. At present, however, surveillance programs are likely to continue according to institutional practice. It is important for those participating in such programs to be aware of the limitations of colonoscopy and biopsy as a means of reducing the risk of cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.
Strictureplasty for Crohns disease: techniques and long-term results.
Hurst RD. Michelassi F.
Department of Surgery, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
Strictureplasty for treatment of symptomatic intestinal strictures secondary to Crohn's disease is being performed with increasing frequency. To determine the overall clinical results after strictureplasty for Crohn's disease, all patients undergoing this procedure were prospectively studied. Between 6/1/89 and 2/1/97, 57 Crohn's disease patients underwent 60 operations utilizing strictureplasties. A total of 109 strictureplasties were performed (90 Heineke-Mikulicz, 6 Finney, and 13 side-to-side isoperistaltic). The 30-day perioperative morbidity was 12%, with complications being less common for patients undergoing elective versus unscheduled operations (p < 0.002). Recurrence of Crohn's disease requiring operation was seen in seven patients after a mean follow-up of 38 months. The estimated cumulative recurrence rate after 2 years was 15 +/- 6% (+/- standard error) and 22 +/- 10% at 5 years. A recurrence developed at the site of the previous strictureplasty in only five cases. Strictureplasty is a safe, effective means of providing long-term surgical palliation to selected patients with Crohn's disease. Perioperative complication rates are comparable to those seen with standard surgical treatment, and recurrences are not excessive.
Factors determining recurrence following surgery for Crohns disease.
Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
Many factors have been examined in an attempt to define groups at higher risk for recurrence or recrudescence of Crohn's disease. Among these factors are age and onset of disease, gender, site of disease, number of resections, symptomatic status at the time of surgery, length of small bowel resection, fistulizing versus obstructive forms of disease, proximal margin length, microscopic margin histology, strictureplasty, and number of sites of disease, as well as the presence of colonic only disease, the presence of granulomas, blood transfusions, family history, and prophylactic treatment. To date, only proctocolectomy with Brooke ileostomy versus other procedures for colonic only disease, and prophylactic treatment have been shown with some degree of confidence to lead to a lower recurrence rate after surgery for Crohn's disease.
Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.
Sardinha TC. Wexner SD.
Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Fort Lauderdale 33309, USA.
The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.
Quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel disease after surgery.
McLeod RS. Baxter NN.
Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Quality of life is an important outcome measure following surgery for ulcerative colitis. Quality of life incorporates not only the physical or functional outcome; it also considers the emotional and social well-being of patients. Quality of life may be measured using disease-specific or generic quality of life measures or by utility measurement. Although the pelvic pouch procedure is preferred by most patients, there are data to suggest that the quality of life is excellent irrespective of the procedure, possibly because physical well-being is improved and is the main determinant of outcome. Those who have a pelvic pouch may be less restricted in some activities. Compared to medically treated patients, quality of life is usually superior in surgical patients, although it varies depending on the activity of the disease and the surgical outcome. Despite more publications on this topic in recent years, there is a need for further studies comparing quality of life in patients receiving medical and surgical treatment as well as assessing outcome following the various surgical procedures.
Cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease.
Rogler G. Andus T.
Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Regensburg, Germany.
Cytokines play a central role in the modulation of the intestinal immune system. They are produced by lymphocytes (especially T cells of the Th1 and Th2 phenotypes), monocytes, intestinal macrophages, granulocytes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. They have proinflammatory functions [interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12] or antiinflammatory functions [interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta)]. Mucosal and systemic concentrations of many pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines are elevated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). An imbalance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines was found for the IL-1/IL-1ra ratio in the inflamed mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, and infectious colitis. Furthermore, the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and the supplementations with antiinflammatory cytokines reduced inflammation in animal models, such as the dextran sulfate colitis (DSS) model, the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model, or the genetically engineered model of IL-10 knockout mice. Based on these findings a rationale for cytokine treatment was defined. The first clinical trials using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against TNF alpha (cA2) or the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 have shown promising results. However, many questions must be answered before cytokines can be considered standard therapy for IBD.
Determinants of survival following hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Bakalakos EA. Kim JA. Young DC. Martin EW Jr.
Division of Surgical Oncology, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Research Institute (JCHRI), Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.
Hepatic resection remains the only potentially curative treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. This retrospective review study was undertaken in an attempt to identify factors that influence patient survival following hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer. From January 1978 to December 1993, a total of 301 patients underwent a total of 345 planned hepatic resections for metastatic colorectal cancer. Of those, 245 patients had one resection, 44 had two resections, and 12 had three resections. For all patients the overall median survival was 20.6 months, operative mortality was 1.1%, and overall morbidity was 17.2%. Average hospital stay was 9 days. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis using log rank comparisons, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression. The statistically significant factors that influenced survival were distribution of liver metastases, unilobar versus bilobar (p = 0.0001), resected versus nonresected (p < 0.0001), and tumor-free surgical margins versus positive margins (p = 0.001). Surprisingly, the disease-free interval and the original stage of the primary tumor did not predict survival (p = not significant). Other factors that had no influence on survival were type of resection, size and number of liver metastases, ABO blood group, and the number of perioperative blood transfusions. For those patients who underwent resection of unilobar metastases with tumor-free margins, the 5-year survival rate was 29% with a median survival of 35 months and eight survivors > 7 years. In addition, one patient with bilobar disease had survival > 7 years and five patients who had resection of hepatic metastases and extrahepatic cancer simultaneously had survival > 3 years. Our data support the concept that patients with unilobar metastatic disease who undergo surgical resection with tumor-free surgical margins can be afforded a significant opportunity at long-term survival with acceptable morbidity, mortality, and hospital stay. Also, certain patients with bilobar or extrahepatic disease (or both) who undergo complete resection can enjoy a long-term survival. In these subgroups of patients resection should be considered on an individual basis.
Hepatic resection in the elderly.
Koperna T. Kisser M. Schulz F.
Department of General Surgery, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria.
From 1986 to 1995 a total of 97 patients > 65 years of age underwent hepatic resections at the Department of General Surgery, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria. The population consisted of 39 men and 58 women with a mean age of 74.0 +/- 5.5 years. Primary neoplasia of the liver was the cause of resection in 35 patients, gallbladder cancer in 16 patients, and metastatic disease to the liver (due to colorectal cancer in 70%) in 40 patients. The rate of major resections (> or = 3 liver segments) was 96% for primary neoplasia of the liver, 70% for metastatic disease to the liver, and 50% for gallbladder cancer; the associated mortality rates were 23%, 2.5%, and 25%, respectively. The magnitude of the resection had a significant influence on survival for gallbladder cancer (p = 0.02) and for primary neoplasia of the liver (p = 0.002) but not for metastatic disease to the liver. This reflects the high rate of cirrhosis in hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma (88%) and gallbladder cancer (37.5%). Both pre- and postoperative severe liver dysfunction had a significantly higher risk for postoperative mortality and morbidity, which showed an incremental risk with age. Another organ system able to predict outcome at the beginning of treatment by its moderate severe dysfunction were the lungs. Overall, only right and extended right lobectomies carried a significantly higher risk for postoperative mortality and morbidity. Postoperative complications were recorded in 43% of our patients, with infection the most frequent problem in nearly all of these patients (95%). Pneumonia was the leading complication associated patient survival. All patients who developed pneumonia as a late complication during a complicated postoperative course died postoperatively. The postoperative Goris score of the patients who died was 6.9 +/- 2.9 (range 3-11), whereas the surviving patients' score averaged 2.2 +/- 1.9 (range 0-9), which was significantly different (p = 0.0003). None of the 54 patients with a GORIS score < or = 2 died postoperatively, whereas 5 of 6 patients with a score > or = 9 died (p = 0.0001). Severe liver dysfunction rather than the extent of resection influences clinical mortality. Patients > 80 years of age with a preoperative severe liver dysfunction showed a postoperative mortality of 57%, and all of these patients developed postoperative complications. Therefore resection cannot be recommended for those patients. Cirrhosis led to an unacceptable mortality of 44% after hepatic resection of > or = 5 liver segments for primary neoplasia of the liver. Major resections cannot be recommended in the aged with gallbladder cancer because 50% of the patients died after such operations. Overall, only resection of > or = 5 liver segments with segments I to III or less remaining were found to pose a major risk for clinical mortality and morbidity, but the cause of death was preexisting liver dysfunction and cirrhosis in all of these patients. Major resections of large neoplasia of the liver can be recommended even in the aged, but a preoperative preselection of patients with respect to liver function and pulmonary function preoperatively may help lower the postoperative morbidity and mortality, especially in patients who will undergo resection of > or = 5 liver segments. Major hepatic resection for metastatic disease to the liver in the elderly carries no additional survival risk. Patients > 65 years of age and especially those > 80 years of age are more liable to succumb to postoperative organ failure and complications, especially infections.
Palliative operation for cancer of the head of the pancreas: significance of pancreaticoduodenectomy and intraoperative radiation therapy for survival and quality of life.
Ouchi K. Sugawara T. Ono H. Fujiya T. Kamiyama Y. Kakugawa Y. Mikuni J. Yamanami H.
Department of Surgery, Miyagi Cancer Center Hospital, Natori, Japan.
The benefits of a palliative operation and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for survival and quality of life (QOL) of patients with cancer of the head of the pancreas are not clear. Survival and hospital-free survival (HFS), which are considered to be objective indicators of QOL, were studied in 13 patients who underwent palliative pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and 32 patients who underwent surgical bypass. Although there was no significant difference in the survival of patients who underwent PD or bypass (median survivals of 9 months and 7 months, respectively), HFS for 3 months or longer was achieved in 84.6% of the patients who underwent PD, which was significantly higher than that of the 53.1% in patients who underwent surgical bypass (p < 0.05). Among TNM stage III patients, a significant difference in survival was observed between surgical bypass associated with IORT and bypass alone (p < 0.05); the median survival time of the IORT group was 10 months, whereas that of the control group was 5 months. In addition, HFS of 3 months or longer was achieved in 83.3% of patients who underwent bypass with IORT but in only 25.0% of the patients who underwent surgery alone (p < 0.01). The addition of IORT to palliative PD neither prolonged survival nor improved HFS. These results show the beneficial effect of palliative PD on QOL, and the efficacy of IORT for survival and QOL was proved in cases with stage III pancreatic cancer who underwent surgical bypass. For patients subjected to palliative PD, however, IORT is not thought to be beneficial for either survival or QOL.
Abdominal sonography screening of clinically diagnosed or suspected appendicitis before surgery.
Chen SC. Chen KM. Wang SM. Chang KJ.
Department of Emergency Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Republic of China.
We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the value of abdominal sonography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and determine the need for abdominal sonography before operation. Altogether 191 patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected appendicitis underwent an abdominal sonography examination performed by a staff surgeon before operation. The sonographic findings are classified into three categories: appendicitis, other diseases, or normal screening. A total of 158 patients (82.7%) with positive findings of appendicitis proceeded to surgery; 18 patients (9.4%) were found to have other diseases, and they were treated for their conditions; and 15 patients (7.9%) with normal screening were discharged from the hospital and were reevaluated 2 weeks later. Only one patient had a false-negative finding. Of the 158 patients undergoing operation, 143 (90.5%) were proved to have appendicitis by the pathologic reports. A total of 32 negative appendectomies (16.8%) were prevented after sonographic examination. Abdominal sonography for detecting acute appendicitis had a sensitivity of 99.3%, a specificity of 68.1%, an accuracy of 91.6%, a positive predictive value of 90.5%, and a negative predictive value of 97.0%. The value of meticulous history-taking, physical examination, and laboratory tests cannot be overemphasized. Our experience suggests that patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected acute appendicitis should routinely undergo abdominal sonography examination, performed by an experienced surgeon, to further decrease the negative appendectomy rates.
Transcylindrical cholecystectomy: new technique for minimally invasive cholecystectomy.
Grau-Talens EJ. Garcia-Olives F. Ruperez-Arribas MP.
Surgical Department, Virgen del Toro Hospital, Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain.
Minilaparotomy cholecystectomy presents exposition difficulties, and laparoscopy requires expensive equipment and additional training. Laparotomy is more painful, causes trauma to the abdominal wall, and requires a longer convalescence; it is also less aesthetic. We present a new technique for minilaparotomy cholecystectomy, transcylindrical cholecystectomy (TC), based on the introduction of a 3.8- or 5.0-cm diameter cylinder (10.0 cm long). The cylinder serves the purpose of separating and isolating the hepatocystic triangle from the surrounding structures, thereby providing a stable surgical field and adequate vision of the hepatocystic triangle so the technique can be performed safely. Patients who have been diagnosed with symptomatic cholelithiasis, who are convalescent from biliary pancreatitis, or who have acute cholecystitis have been treated consecutively by TC. We have carried out the procedure on 116 occasions, 94 using the 3.8-cm cylinder and 28 with the 5.0-cm cylinder; both cylinders were used in 6 cases. The indications for using the 5.0-cm cylinder were mainly cholecystitis, pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, and difficulty with the 3.8-cm cylinder. The result is a 4.5- or 7.0-cm incision. We had difficulty recognizing the anatomy in 11 dissections so we had to enlarge the incision. We have not had accidents related to placement of the cylinder, hemorrhage, or bile duct injuries. The median operating time was 43 minutes, and the mean postoperative stay was 1.8 days. Postoperative FVC and FEV, reductions were 21.7% and 27.4%, respectively. The technique has proved fast, safe, and practicable using conventional material. The cost of TC is $701 (US).
Is percutaneous cholecystostomy the optimal treatment for acute cholecystitis in the very elderly?
Sugiyama M. Tokuhara M. Atomi Y.
First Department of Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
In elderly patients emergent cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis is a high risk procedure. We prospectively assessed the value of percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis in 38 consecutive elderly (> or = 80 years) patients. All 38 underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance for acute cholecystitis (25 calculous, 13 acalculous). Eight (21%) patients had acute severe medical problems, such as shock and respiratory distress. Thirty-one (82%) patients had chronic severe underlying diseases, including cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. Cholecystostomy was successful in all 38 patients. Prompt clinical improvement was obtained in 36 (95%) patients. Morbidity and mortality rates were 3% and 3%, respectively. After cholecystostomy, 10 patients with cholelithiasis underwent elective cholecystectomy without serious complications. Two patients underwent percutaneous cholecystolithotomy, which produced complete resolution of symptoms. Four of 12 patients with and none of 12 without cholelithiasis had recurrent cholecystitis after catheter removal during a mean follow-up of 1.8 years. A second cholecystostomy was successful in these four patients. Elderly patients are often poor surgical candidates because of severe cholecystitis or concomitant medical problems. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a safe, effective treatment for acute cholecystitis even in elderly patients. For calculous cholecystitis, cholecystostomy can be followed by elective surgery, if possible, or by nonsurgical treatment or expectant conservative management in high-risk patients. Cholecystostomy may be a definitive treatment for acalculous cholecystitis.
Long-term results of polyglactin mesh for the prevention of incisional hernias in obese patients.
Pans A. Elen P. Dewe W. Desaive C.
Department of Abdominal Surgery, University of Liege, Herstal, Belgium.
The aim of this study was to compare prospectively the incidence of incisional hernia in two groups of patients operated on for morbid obesity, with or without intraperitoneal polyglactin mesh. From October 1990 to September 1993, a total of 288 patients were randomly assigned to the two groups. There were 144 patients in the mesh group and 144 in the no-mesh group. Altogether 240 patients (83%) were reviewed personally, 45 (16%) were interviewed by phone (n = 39) or mail (n = 6), and 3 (1%) were inaccessible for follow-up since discharge from the hospital. The mean follow-up period was 29.8 months (range 0-67 months). A total of 33 incisional hernias were observed in the mesh group and 41 in the no-mesh group. There was no significant difference in the distribution of herniation time between the two groups (p = 0.43). The two main predictive factors of herniation were age and weight. In conclusion, the use of an intraperitoneal polyglactin mesh does not prevent postoperative incisional hernias in obese patients.
Overexpression of nm23 protein assessed by color video image analysis in metastatic colorectal cancer: correlation with reduced patient survival.
Berney CR. Yang JL. Fisher RJ. Russell PJ. Crowe PJ.
Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia.
The function and prognostic significance of the nm23 gene is controversial in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to determine if nm23 protein expression correlated with the subsequent development of liver metastasis. Paraffin-embedded sections of 30 metastasizing CRC primaries and their subsequently resected liver secondaries were compared with those of 28 nonmetastasizing CRCs, 20 adenomas, and 20 cases of normal colonic mucosa. Expression of nm23 protein, assayed by immunohistochemistry, was measured using a standard semiquantitative scaling system and compared with a microcomputerbased color video image analysis (VIA). There was good correlation between color VIA and semiquantitative evaluation of nm23 immunoreactivity, confirming the validity of quantitative analysis (Pearson's r = 0.88; p < 0.001). Metastasizing CRC primaries and secondaries overexpressed nm23 protein when compared with the other clinical groups, particularly nonmetastasizing CRC (Student's t-test, p < 0.001). Furthermore, more nm23 immunoreactivity was associated with a higher risk of death from CRC (log-rank test, p = 0.002). These results suggest that overexpression of nm23 is highly associated with liver metastases from CRC and reduced survival.
Radiation enterocolitis: overview of the past 15 years.
Shiraishi M. Hiroyasu S. Ishimine T. Shimabuku M. Kusano T. Higashi M. Muto Y.
First Department of Surgery, University of Ryukyu, School of Medicine, Okinawa, Japan.
From April 1980 to April 1995 a total of 54 patients (53 women, 1 man) were hospitalized in our department for the surgical treatment of radiation enterocolitis. Two surgical protocols were applied for these patients: intestinal decompression procedures alone (intestinal bypass, colostomy, or both; n = 18) or an intestinal resection in addition to decompression (n = 36). The clinical factors contributing to survival after irradiation were retrospectively reviewed by a multiple variate proportional hazards model. As a result, patients treated with decompression procedures alone had an 11 times higher risk for death than those treated with the addition of intestinal resection. In the former group, 5 of 18 patients died of bleeding from the remaining intestine after operation. We concluded that surgical resection of the diseased intestine is a useful procedure for treating radiation enterocolitis to reduce intestinal bleeding from the irradiated intestine.
Fibrin glue sandwich prevents pancreatic fistula following distal pancreatectomy.
Ohwada S. Ogawa T. Tanahashi Y. Nakamura S. Takeyoshi I. Ohya T. Ikeya T. Kawashima K. Kawashima Y. Morishita Y.
Second Department of Surgery, Gunma University School of Medicine, Japan.
Pancreatic fistula is a major form of morbidity following pancreatic resection. We conducted a nonrandomized clinical trial comparing the sealing and sandwich techniques of spraying fibrin glue to prevent pancreatic fistula following distal pancreatectomy. The pancreas was transected with a scalpel to identify and suture the main pancreatic duct and its small branches. In the sealing group, fibrin glue was sprayed over the closed pancreatic stump and sutures. Alternatively, in the sandwich group fibrin glue was sprayed so as to cover and join the cut surface of the pancreatic remnant, which was then held closed with sutures. Altogether 111 patients were included in the study (90 with gastric cancer, 10 with esophageal cancer, and 11 with pancreatic cancer). Patients were nonrandomly assigned to the sandwich or the sealing group. Morbidity was 21.8% for the patients in the sandwich group versus 33.9% in the sealing group. Pancreatic fistulas occurred in 9.0% of the sandwich group versus 26.8% of the sealing group. The incidence of fistula was thus significantly lower in the sandwich group. The incidence of fistula was also significantly lower in the sandwich group for gastric malignancy patients undergoing extended radical lymphadenectomy down to the paraaortic lymph nodes combined with left adrenalectomy. Of the patients with gastric malignancy, pancreatic fistulas occurred in 9.3% of the sandwich group versus 25.5% of the sealing group. The fibrin glue sandwich technique is simple and reliable and should be valuable for complementing other prophylactic methods of preventing pancreatic fistula.
Lethality of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.
Doherty GM. Olson JA. Frisella MM. Lairmore TC. Wells SA Jr. Norton JA.
Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
The lethality of the endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I), particularly the pancreatic islet cell tumors, has been controversial. We evaluated the cause and age of death in MEN-I kindreds. Our database contains 34 distinct kindreds with 1838 members. Reliable death data are available for 103 people (excluding accidents and age < 18 years). We compared survival curves of MEN-I patients who died from causes related to MEN-I with those from MEN-I carriers who died from a nonendocrine cause and unaffected kindred members. We also compared ages of death between affected and unaffected members of MEN-I kindreds. Of 59 MEN-I-affected patients, 27 died directly of MEN-I-specific illness and 32 of non-MEN-I causes. The MEN-I-specific deaths occurred at a younger age (median 47 years) than either MEN-I patients whose death was from some nonendocrine cause (median 60 years, p < 0.02) or than all kindred members who did not die of MEN-I disease (median 55 years, p < 0.05). The causes of death of the MEN-I patients included islet cell tumor (n = 12), ulcer disease (n = 6), hypercalcemia/uremia (n = 3), carcinoid tumor (n = 6), and nonendocrine malignancies (n = 9). There was no difference in survival between MEN-I carriers and unaffected kindred members. Of our MEN-I patients, 46% died from causes related to their endocrine tumors after a median age of 47 years, which was younger than family members who did not die from these tumors. Pancreatic islet cell tumors were the most common cause of death of MEN-I patients. Management of kindreds with MEN-I should include an aggressive screening program with early therapeutic intervention when a tumor is identified.
Preoperative and intraoperative topographic diagnosis of insulinomas.
Kuzin NM. Egorov AV. Kondrashin SA. Lotov AN. Kuznetzov NS. Majorova JB.
Department of Surgery No. 1, Moscow Medical Academy, Russia.
Altogether 120 patients with organic hyperinsulinism underwent clinical examination and treatment (38 male, 82 female, mean age 44.2 +/- 4.6 years). The cause of hyperinsulinism was benign insulinomas in 96 (80.0%), malignant tumors in 9 (7.5%), and hyperplasia of beta cells in 6 (5.0%). In 9 (7.5%) patients the origin of hyperinsulinism was not diagnosed. The tumor was localized in the head, body, and tail of the pancreas in 31.8%, 36.4%, and 31.8% of cases, respectively. Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) was undertaken in 37 patients, and in 83 cases only intraoperative palpation was done. Arterial stimulated venous sampling (ASVS) was performed in 17 patients (blood was sampled from the right hepatic vein for determination of the insulin level after arterial stimulation by calcium gluconate in different parts of the pancreas). The sensitivity of ultrasonography (US) was 29.5%, computed tomography (CT) 24.2%, angiography 55.9%, superselective angiography (branches of the celiac trunk) 72.2%, and intraoperative palpation 90.0%. ASVS showed an accuracy of 90.0%. Combining angiography with ASVS gave an exact diagnosis of hyperinsulinism in 100% of cases, and IOUS revealed tumors in 100% of cases. Hyperplasia of beta-cells was diagnosed only by means of ASVS. A total of 117 patients underwent surgery, including distal resection of pancreas (n = 39), enucleation of tumor (n = 70), and laparotomy (n = 8). The postoperative mortality associated with insulinomas was 7.7%. The frequency of postoperative complications was 43.6%. Benign insulinomas recurred at a rate of 5.4%. Patients with malignant insulinomas had a 5-year survival of 66.0%. The diagnosis of insulinomas was achieved by a combination of selective angiography, ASVS, and IOUS.
Stage-dependent therapy of rectal carcinoid tumors.
Schindl M. Niederle B. Hafner M. Teleky B. Langle F. Kaserer K. Schofl R.
Department of Surgery, University of Vienna Medical School, Austria.
Although malignant behavior of rectal carcinoid tumors is rare, the risk of metastases and death does exist. Adaptation of therapy according to the estimated malignancy seems necessary. To develop a stage-dependent therapy, 31 patients with rectal carcinoid tumors measuring 5 to 50 mm in diameter were analyzed retrospectively. Malignancy was estimated according to tumor size, infiltration depth, and histopathology. There were 18 tumors within the mucosa and submucosa (T1), 7 tumors with muscularis propria invasion (T2), and carcinoid tumor penetrating the full rectal wall (T3) or spreading to surrounding tissue (T4) in 6 patients. Altogether 20 patients (65%) were treated with a minimally invasive intervention: endoscopic polypectomy (EP) in 12 and transanal excision (TE) in 8 patients. In 11 patients (35%) aggressive surgical procedures--anterior resection (AR) in 4 and abdominoperineal resection (APR) in 7--were performed. After a mean +/- SD follow-up of 86.0 +/- 61.3 months, tumor recurrence was not seen in any of the 20 patients with minimally invasive treatment, and all were still alive. No severe complications associated with surgical procedures were detected. In contrast, 5 of the 10 patients with advanced tumor stage died from their disease despite aggressive surgery (AR, APR). In conclusion, depending on tumor stage, treatment of rectal carcinoids includes EP, TE, or extended resection. Minimally invasive techniques are safe treatments for small to medium-size T1/T2 rectal carcinoids. Extended surgery cannot improve the overall survival of those with advanced tumors (T3/T4, N1, M1) but can be beneficial for preventing local complications.
Intraoperative gastrin measurements during surgical management of patients with gastrinomas: experience with 20 cases.
Proye C. Pattou F. Carnaille B. Paris JC. d'Herbomez M. Marchandise X.
Department of General and Endocrine Surgery, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Lille, 1 Place de Verdun, 59037 Lille, France.
Despite recent advances in imaging techniques for endocrine tumors of the duodenum and the pancreas, preoperative localization of gastrinomas is inconsistent. Successful surgical management of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and removal of all gastrin-secreting tumors remains a difficult task. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of intraoperative gastrin measurements for successful surgical treatment in patients with gastrinomas. Intraoperative gastrin measurements were performed in 20 patients with ZES who underwent resection of gastrin-secreting tumors. Gastrin was measured with a radioimmunologic assay in blood samples obtained from a peripheral vein and from the portal vein at the beginning of the operation (T0) and 20 minutes after removal of the lesion(s) (T1). In 16 patients gastrin was also measured 4 minutes after injection of secretin 3 U/kg (T2). Thirteen patients (65%) were cured by surgery. In two of them, peripheral and portal gastrin levels were normal at T0, precluding any further interpretation of the test. Completeness of surgery was confirmed by normalization of gastrin levels at T1 or the absence of stimulation at T2 (or both) in 10 patients. In only one case did the gastrin levels remain elevated at T1 despite a favorable outcome after surgery. In each of the seven patients (35%) who had persisting disease at 1 year, failure of the surgical procedure was predicted by persistence of high levels of gastrin at T1. In patients with hypergastrinemia, the positive predictive value of intraoperative gastrin measurement for completeness of surgery and the specificity were 100%. The negative predictive value was 88% and the sensitivity 91%. The overall accuracy of the test was 94%. In patients with ZES the normalization of systemic hypergastrinemia during surgery affirms the successful removal of all gastrin-secreting tumors. We conclude that intraoperative gastrin measurement is a valuable addendum for optimizing the surgical management of gastrinoma.
Localization, malignant potential, and surgical management of gastrinomas.
Kisker O. Bastian D. Bartsch D. Nies C. Rothmund M.
Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg, Germany.
Between 1987 and 1996 a total of 25 patients with proved Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) have been treated in our department. If preoperative imaging studies did not show diffuse metastatic disease, patients were scheduled for operation with a standardized surgical approach including thorough exploration and intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) of the pancreas and a longitudinal duodenotomy, with separate palpation of the anterior and posterior walls. Postoperatively, patients were followed up by physical examination, fasting gastrin levels, and the secretin stimulation test. Altogether 10 patients had duodenal wall gastrinoma, 14 patients pancreatic gastrinoma, and the tumor was not found in 1 patient. Only 15 tumors (60%) (2 duodenal wall and 13 pancreatic gastrinomas) could be visualized preoperatively. Intraoperatively, 24 of 25 primary gastrinomas were localized. The mean size of duodenal wall gastrinomas (9.6 mm) was significantly smaller than that of pancreatic gastrinomas (28.7 mm) (p < 0.05). At the time of surgical exploration, five duodenal and seven pancreatic gastrinomas had metastasized. The incidence of lymph node metastases was similar for both tumor sites, whereas patients with pancreatic gastrinomas more frequently had liver metastases. The presence of liver metastases was the most important determinant for survival. Four patients (40%) with duodenal and seven with pancreatic (50%) gastrinomas (mean follow-up 5.2 years) were biochemically cured by operation. Of the remaining patients, eight are still alive with recurrent disease. Our results suggest that preoperative localization of gastrinomas often fails despite all modern imaging methods. Therefore a standardized surgical exploration of the pancreas including IOUS and a duodenal exploration should be performed to achieve optimal results. Preoperative diagnostic imaging tests should include computed tomography, ultrasonography, and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy to exclude diffuse metastases. In contrast to liver metastases, lymph node metastases do not have a significant influence on survival.
Reoperative surgery for organic hyperinsulinism: indications and operative strategy.
Simon D. Starke A. Goretzki PE. Roeher HD.
Department of Surgery, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.
Organic hyperinsulinism has a good chance of cure by operation, although patients with diffuse or multiple disease run a high risk of recurrence or persistence of disease. Surgical management and outcome in these patients are presented and discussed. Between 1986 and April 1997 a total of 62 patients were operated on for organic hyperinsulinism [solitary 48, multiple 3, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I) 2, diffuse 4, malignant 5]. Persistence or recurrence occurred in 10 patients (16%). Among the six that persisted, four were malignant and two benign. All four of those that recurred were benign. Patients with benign disease presented with multiple tumors (n = 3), MEN-I syndrome (n = 1), and diffuse/nodular hyperplasia (n = 2). The duration between diagnosis and reintervention ranged from 1 to 10 years. Preoperative diagnosis was able to localize tumors in three patients (computed tomography 1, angiography 2, calcium stimulation 1). Operative procedures were multiple enucleations in two patients with sporadic disease, subtotal resection plus enucleation in the case of MEN-I syndrome, subtotal resection for diffuse hyperplasia, left resection for adenomatosis, and tumor extirpation after multiple previous operations. Long-term clinical and biochemical cure was achieved in five of six patients (mean follow-up 5 years). Octreotide therapy shows good symptomatic control in the patient with operative failure. Reintervention for organic hyperinsulinism is successful (80% cure) and requires preoperative imaging and individual surgical management.
Limited tumor involvement found at multiple endocrine neoplasia type I pancreatic exploration: can it be predicted by preoperative tumor localization?
Skogseid B. Oberg K. Akerstrom G. Eriksson B. Westlin JE. Janson ET. Eklof H. Elvin A. Juhlin C. Rastad J.
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
Radiologically demonstrable pancreatic endocrine tumors are a frequent requirement for exploration in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I). Such delayed intervention is accompanied by a 30% to 50% incidence of pancreatic endocrine metastases. This study explores biochemical tumor markers and operative findings in relation to preoperative pancreatic radiology in 25 MEN-I patients. They underwent pancreatic surgery with (n = 19) or without (n = 6) radiologic signs of primary tumor and absence of metastases upon conventional examination, including OctreoScan testing (n = 10). Biochemical diagnosis required an increasing elevation of at least two independent pancreatic tumor markers. Tumor diameters averaged 1.1 cm (0-5 cm) and 0.9 cm (0.2-1.5 cm) in the patients with and without positive preoperative radiology, respectively. These investigations never displayed more than one of the consistently multiple tumors, and the results were falsely positive in 26%. Preoperatively unidentified regional or hepatic metastases were found at surgical exploration in 26% of patients with radiologic localization and in none of the others. Limited pancreatic tumor involvement necessitated intraoperative absence of metastases and pancreatic lesions /= 7 mm in diameter. Conventional pancreatic imaging is insensitive and nonspecific for recognizing even substantial pancreatic tumors associated with MEN-I.
Thyroid cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.
Perrier ND. van Heerden JA. Goellner JR. Williams ED. Gharib H. Marchesa P. Church JM. Fazio VW. Larson DR.
Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
The association between thyroid cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), albeit rare, is well known. It has been suggested that the thyroid tumors have unique histologic characteristics and may be follicular in origin. Because of their rarity, treatment and long-term prognosis are uncertain. Twelve such patients (prevalence 399/100,000) seen during 1949-1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Histology was independently re-reviewed by two pathologists. There were 11 female patients (two sisters) and 1 male patient, with a mean age of 28 years (range 15-61 years). Eight patients (66%) had multicentric tumors and five (42%) bilateral disease. Average tumor diameter was 1.8 cm (range 0.2-5.0 cm). Regional nodal metastases were present in two patients. All 12 thyroid cancers in this series were papillary. The one male patient demonstrated "typical" histology with variable papillary and follicular architecture, whereas the 11 female patients had tumors with unusual histology as described by Harach. Five patients (41%) were treated by total thyroidectomy, five with near-total thyroidectomy, and two with lobectomy alone. Mean follow-up was 142 months (range 7 months to 30 years). Regional recurrent disease occurred in two patients, one of whom died of the disease. The 5- and 20-year survivals were 90% and 77%, respectively. The results indicated that all tumors in this study were papillary, although atypical histology was encountered in 91%. The mean age (28 years) is younger than that of patients with sporadic disease. Multicentricity and bilateral disease are common. In view of this finding, total thyroidectomy should be strongly considered. Long-term prognosis is excellent. The finding of unusual histology in a young patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma should arouse the suspicion of FAP.
Genetics of inflammatory bowel disease: implications for the future.
Pena AS. Crusius JB.
Department of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal Immunology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
There is overwhelming evidence that genetic factors play a role in the predisposition to suffer the development of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. The genetic analysis of complex diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is difficult. The presence of disease heterogeneity, the relative low frequency in the population, the degree to which first-degree relatives are affected (approximately 10%), the presence of genes with minor genetic effects, and ethnic differences are some of the difficulties encountered when identifying disease susceptibility loci. Two major approaches to identifying these genes are being followed at present. The first, family-based, consists of studying linkage analysis in sibling pairs and parental transmission in genome-wide screening using microsatellite markers. These studies are appropriate and helpful for finding genes of major or moderate effects but may provide difficulty when identifying genes with minor effects. Risch and Merikangas have pointed to the power of association studies utilizing candidate genes in families. These studies should be considered in the future in genome-wide screens when technologic advances permit. The second approach is based on classic epidemiologic designs, population-based studies, using candidate genes in the framework of a biologic hypothesis. Recent data using both approaches in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are reviewed. The results of genome-wide linkage studies have not reached consensus but suggest that these diseases are different and polygenic in nature. We have started our studies with the hypothesis that an abnormal immune dysbalance contributes to the biologic basis of disease. We therefore study polymorphisms in genes encoding proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines. Preliminary data of these association studies suggest the importance of several genes with small effects in determining the severity and prognosis of these diseases.