Mirror pain as an unusual presentation of renal colic.
Clark AJ. Norman RW.
Department of Anesthesia, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Although most patients suffering from pain related to upper urinary tract stones feel the discomfort on the same side as the stone, rarely it is perceived on the opposite side. We sought to identify the prevalence of this clinical scenario and to review possible explanations. The charts and x-rays of all patients with unilateral, symptomatic, radiologically identifiable upper urinary tract stones, seen at an outpatient clinic between June 1993 and August 1996, were reviewed retrospectively in terms of the side of the discomfort in comparison to the side of the stone. Three of 631 patients presented with contralateral or "mirror pain" secondary to a renal or ureteric calculus. In each case the symptoms resolved completely following successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or spontaneous passage of the stone.
Ginsberg DA. Rovner ES. Raz S.
Department of Urology, UCLA School of Medicine, USA.
Vaginal evisceration is a rare complication of an enterocele. We report a patient who presented with spontaneous evisceration per vagina secondary to erosion through an attenuated vaginal wall. This resulted in a strangulated hernia requiring bowel resection and enterocele repair. This patient is discussed as are the risk factors and management options for patients with vaginal evisceration.
Laparoscopic evaluation for a contralateral patent processus vaginalis: part III.
Yerkes EB. Brock JW 3rd. Holcomb GW 3rd. Morgan WM 3rd.
Division of Pediatric Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2765, USA.
OBJECTIVES: Between May 1, 1992 and August 1, 1996, 759 consecutive children younger than 10 years of age were evaluated and treated for known inguinal hernia. These children were participating in a prospective investigation of the potential role of diagnostic laparoscopy in the evaluation of the contralateral inguinal anatomy. The initial two series of data (parts I and II of this three-part series) were previously presented at the 1993 and 1995 American Academy of Pediatrics meetings. METHODS: Of 759 patients, 100 children were diagnosed with bilateral inguinal hernias and therefore did not undergo laparoscopy. Thirty-two patients did not undergo laparoscopic evaluation due to technical difficulties or complicated clinical situations. The patient's contralateral inguinal region was carefully examined under anesthesia, and predictions were made regarding the likelihood of contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV). Six hundred twenty-seven children underwent diagnostic laparoscopy to confirm the presence or absence of CPPV. Laparoscopy was initially exclusively performed through the umbilicus prior to repair of the known hernia, but over the last 26 months, 250 children successfully underwent laparoscopy through the ipsilateral hernia sac. RESULTS: Of patients younger than 1 year of age, 114 were diagnosed with both a known unilateral hernia and CPPV, whereas 132 had a unilateral hernia only (46% versus 54%). Among children older than 1 year of age, 148 (39%) were diagnosed with unilateral hernia and CPPV, and 233 (61%) were diagnosed with a unilateral hernia alone. After examination under anesthesia, 233 of the 627 patients were suspected of having a CPPV, and 107 were confirmed at laparoscopy (46%). The remaining 394 patients were not believed to have a CPPV. Normal inguinal anatomy was confirmed in 234 patients (59%), but 160 patients were found at laparoscopy to have a CPPV (41%). CONCLUSIONS: A contralateral patent processus vaginalis may be present in a surprising number of young patients being evaluated for a known inguinal hernia. Laparoscopy can be performed without a separate incision when the ipsilateral hernia sac is of sufficient width to allow passage of the scope. Laparoscopy is the best method for evaluating the contralateral inguinal region, particularly in younger children, as it prevents unnecessary inguinal exploration and it decreases the risk that the child will later present with a clinical contralateral hernia.
Adenocarcinoma in a continent colonic urinary reservoir.
Albertini JJ. Sujka SK. Helal MA. Seigne JD. Lockhart JL.
Department of Surgery, University of South Florida, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, USA.
We report the first case of an adenocarcinoma developing in a continent ileocolonic urinary reservoir. The tumor presented 7 years after the urinary diversion and more than 6 years after the resection of a Dukes' B lesion of the left colon. This report demonstrates that the colonic segment used for urinary diversion retains its malignant potential and that surveillance pouchoscopy should be performed in these patients.
Laparoscopy for the acute abdomen in the postoperative urologic patient.
Bauer JJ. Schulam PG. Kaufman HS. Moore RG. Irby PB. Kavoussi LR.
Department of Surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA.
OBJECTIVES: Exploratory laparotomy offers the greatest diagnostic accuracy of intra-abdominal pathologic processes, but can be associated with significant morbidity. Laparoscopy provides diagnostic capabilities equivalent to that of open exploration, but with potentially less morbidity. We present 3 cases in which laparoscopy was used to diagnose and manage urologic patients with an acute abdomen in a postoperative period. METHODS: Three patients underwent laparoscopy between 1 and 14 days postoperatively for an acute abdomen (fever, elevated white blood cell count, and peritoneal signs). The initial procedures included a pubovaginal sling repair with fascia lata, endoscopic placement of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, and a laparoscopic ureterolithotomy for a distal stone. RESULTS: In each of the 3 patients laparoscopy revealed misplacement or malfunction of a previously placed tube. In all cases, the patient was managed laparoscopically without the need for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: These cases demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopy to provide diagnostic and therapeutic solutions to postoperative urologic patients presenting with an acute abdomen.
Late effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer in a randomized dose-response study: results of a self-assessment questionnaire.
Nguyen LN. Pollack A. Zagars GK.
Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the late effects more than 2 years after radiotherapy using a patient-reported questionnaire in patients with prostate cancer enrolled in a randomized dose-response study comparing 70 Gy (conventional) and 78 Gy (conformal) radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: The first 112 patients in the study were sent questionnaires to evaluate late bladder, rectal, and sexual function. There were 101 evaluable responses, with 50 in the conventional (Conven-RT) arm and 51 in the conformal (3DCRT) arm. RESULTS: The overall rate of persistent incontinence was 29%, with 36% reporting urgency-related and 8% stress-related incontinence at some time after radiation. Use of a urinary protective device was required in 2%. The majority noticed leakage less than once per day (52%). In comparing the Conven-RT group with the 3DCRT group, similar incontinence rates were seen. However, fewer of those who received 3DCRT reported daily leakage of urine (33% versus 63%, P = 0.044). The majority (78%) of patients experienced no or mild change in bowel function after RT. Urgency of bowel movements (BMs) was of concern for 27% of patients; however, 90% reported their BMs were controlled without accidents, and 1% were taking antidiarrheal medications once a week or daily. The Conven-RT group had more moderate or major changes in bowel function than the 3DCRT group (34% versus 10%), more frequent BMs (47% versus 27%), and more urgent BMs (37% versus 18%) (P < or = 0.040 for all three comparisons). Hematochezia was uncommon, occurring once a week in 7% and daily in 4% of patients. Before RT, 80% of patients were potent, with erections adequate for intercourse at least a few times over the prior year. After RT, potency was decreased to 51%, with erections adequate for intercourse at least a few times since the completion of RT. CONCLUSIONS: The overall rates of significant complications were extremely low. Although 30% reported incontinence, relatively few patients (2%) required pads. This rate compares favorably with the 31% of patients requiring protection after radical prostatectomy reported previously. Despite the higher treatment doses in the 3DCRT arm, slightly fewer long-term bowel side effects were noted. These data indicate that 78 Gy may safely be delivered using the conformal RT boost treatment technique described.
Hepatic subcapsular extension of pelvic lymphocele after radical retropubic prostatectomy.
Bauer JJ. McLeod DG.
Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA.
Lymphoceles are a rare symptomatic complication after radical prostatectomy occurring in less than 5% of cases. We present a case of a symptomatic lymphocele that occurred after a radical retropubic prostatectomy and obturator lymphadenectomy. The lymphocele dissected along the retroperitoneum and extended into the hepatic subcapsular space and became secondarily infected with Candida albicans.