Current uses of gadolinium chelates for clinical magnetic resonance imaging examination of the liver.
Sharp and Children's MRI Center, Sharp HealthCare, San Diego, CA 92123, USA.
The use of gadolinium chelates has become an integral part of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver and extrahepatic abdomen. Although liver specific contrast agents are now available, gadolinium chelates continue to offer significant advantages for abdominal MRI. The gadolinium chelates uniquely provide important information about tumor perfusion that is key in our assessment of liver masses. These paramagnetic contrast agents assist with liver lesion detection, characterization, and in establishing the volume of viable perfused tumor. Gadolinium chelates are equally important for MRI of the extrahepatic abdomen. The interstitial accumulation of these agents within peritoneal, omental, and gastrointestinal tumor produces marked enhancement and is key in accurate tumor staging. Depiction of lesions within solid visceral organs such as the pancreas, kidneys, and spleen is also improved following gadolinium injection. The versatility of this workhorse contrast agent assures that gadolinium chelates will continue to occupy a central role in any busy abdominal MRI practice.
Liver imaging with ferumoxides (Feridex): fundamentals, controversies, and practical aspects.
Clement O. Siauve N. Cuenod CA. Frija G.
Service de Radiologie, Hopital Laennec, Paris, France.
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Feridex) have been recently made available to the radiological community as a contrast agent for MR imaging of the liver. This article reviews the principal physicochemical characteristics of this new compound, with an emphasis on the explanation of the contrast obtained (either positive or negative enhancement) that depends on the local concentration and the sequence used. The clinical use of Feridex is detailed, both for lesion detection and characterization. Finally, some guidelines for image optimization are given.