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Surg Today

An evaluation of motor function in transverse colon transplants after total gastrectomy.

Year 1998
Mochiki E. Haga N. Hara T. Hosouchi Y. Takenoshita S. Mizumoto A. Itoh Z. Nagamachi Y.
First Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan.
The motor activity of the isolated colon is understood less than that of any other part of the gastrointestinal viscus. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the motor activity of the interposed transverse colon following total gastrectomy through a study of 21 patients. Manometric studies were carried out with a 5-lumen, open-tipped catheter in the resting state, in response to dry swallows, and swallowing distilled water and a liquid meal. Contractile waves in the interposed colon grafts were divided into three types, namely, high-amplitude propagated contractions (HAPCs), low-amplitude propagated contractions (LAPCs), and low-amplitude nonpropagated contractions (LANPCs). No retrograde contractions were observed during the entire recording. Motor activity in the interposed colon increased to a greater extent after swallowing distilled water or liquid meals than during the resting period or after dry swallows; however, there was no significant difference between the effect of distilled water and liquid meals. The motor activity of the interposed colon was lower in patients with symptoms than in asymptomatic patients. These results suggest that the volume, rather than the composition, of the lumen contents is an important factor for inducing interposed colon graft contractions, and that contractions of the interposed colon can help to propel the contents of the colon into the duodenum and clear any duodenal juice if reflux should occur.

Repair of midline incisional hernias using polypropylene grafts.

Year 1998
Turkcapar AG. Yerdel MA. Aydinuraz K. Bayar S. Kuterdem E.
Department of Surgery, Ankara University Medical School, Turkey.
We report herein our results of routinely performing tension-free repair for midline incisional hernias larger than 3 cm using a woven polypropylene graft between January 1990 and December 1995. Included in this study were 45 patients, 34 (73.1%) of whom had previously undergone a primary repair which had failed. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 56 months with a mean of 36 months. Only one patient (2.2%) suffered a recurrence of the hernia. Although three (6.6%) developed a wound infection, one (2.2%) developed a wound sinus, and two (4.4%) developed wound seroma, none of these complications required removal of the graft. The findings of this study led us to conclude that Prolene grafts could be used as routine prosthetic material in the repair of incisional hernias. Moreover, during the follow-up period we observed that the modifications we made in the operative technique had a significantly positive effect on the outcome of the patients.

Successful resection of thoracic esophageal cancer associated with the right aortic arch.

Year 1998
Yano M. Shiozaki H. Murata A. Inoue M. Tamura S. Monden M.
Department of Surgery II, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.
A 52-year-old Japanese man with thoracic esophageal cancer associated with the right aortic arch was admitted to our hospital. Preoperative spiral computed tomography and three-dimensional image reconstruction also showed an associated aberrant left subclavian artery. After preoperative concurrent chemoradiation, the patient underwent a subtotal esophagectomy with regional lymphadenectomy via a left thoracotomy.

Spontaneous rupture of the stomach in preschool age children: a report of two cases.

Year 1998
Adachi Y. Takamatsu H. Noguchi H. Tahara H. Mukai M. Akiyama H.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Japan.
The cases of two preschool-age children who suffered spontaneous gastric ruptures are reported herein. The first was a 2-year-old girl with tetralogy of Fallot, transferred to our hospital due to shock. A laparotomy was performed under the diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation, and two perforations of the posterior wall of the gastric fundus were found. The second case, a 4-year-old girl who had previously experienced an episode of gastric dilatation, was admitted to our department with abdominal distention and vomiting. An abdominal X-ray film revealed a pneumoperitoneum, and an emergency laparotomy was performed, confirming a round rupture in the posterior wall of the stomach. Both patients had a satisfactory postoperative course.

The application of radio-opaque markers prior to ileostomy in an infant with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: report of a case.

Year 1998
Hase T. Kodama M. Kishida A. Naka N. Shimadera S. Egawa T. Ohno M. Shimada M.
Section of Emergency of Critical Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.
We report the case of a 6-month-old boy who developed chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction soon after birth. A rectal biopsy demonstrated immaturity of the neuronal cells in the enteral ganglion. His clinical course was stressful, with remission and exacerbation despite conservative treatment with daily bowel irrigation, prokinetic agents, and parenteral nutrition. Since the infant developed serious enterocolitis associated with the increased severity of his bowel obstruction, and no substantial gain in body weight was observed, a loop-ileostomy was performed based on X-ray findings with radio-opaque markers, which were employed to evaluate the whole gut transit time. The radio-opaque markers proved extremely useful for determining which loop of the ileum should be utilized for the ileostomy.

Primary leiomyosarcoma of the jejunal mesentery: report of a case.

Year 1998
Mizoe A. Takebe K. Kanematsu T.
Second Department of Surgery, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan.
The occurrence of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the mesentery is rare. A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital complaining of an abdominal mass. The findings of both abdominal ultrasonography and a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an irregular and heterogeneous mass located in the mesentery. A laparotomy was performed and a 7.0 x 6.5 cm tumor was thus found within the jejunal mesentery. The tumor was successfully resected by a combined resection of 40 cm of the jejunum and end-to-end anastomosis of the jejunum. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed leiomyosarcoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, but multiple liver metastases were discovered 1 year and 5 months after the initial operation. A second operation was performed, but the patient died due to hepatic failure and unexpected bleeding from the cut surface of the remnant liver. Preoperative imaging examinations, including abdominal ultrasonography and CT scan, were thus found to be useful tools for both identifying and diagnosing the origin and extension of a mesenteric mass. However, even using such diagnostic techniques an accurate diagnosis of intraabdominal leiomyosarcoma remains difficult.

Surgical treatment of a solitary pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: report of a case.

Year 1998
Jingu K. Watanabe K. Yamamoto H. Fujita Y. Honda I. Watanabe S. Nagata M. Sugimoto K. Watanabe Y.
Division of Gastroenterological Surgery, Chiba Cancer Center Hospital, Japan.
The pancreas is a rare site of metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We present herein the case of a 47-year-old male in whom a solitary pancreatic metastasis was treated by a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PpPD), 3 years after a radical nephrectomy for a RCC. The few reported cases of surgically treated pancreatic metastases from RCC are reviewed following the presentation of this case.

Diffusely infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

Year 1998
Natsugoe S. Matsushita Y. Kijima F. Tokuda K. Shimada M. Shirao K. Kusano C. Baba M. Yoshinaka H. Fukumoto T. Mueller J. Aikou T.
First Department of Surgery, Kagoshima University School of Medicine, Japan.
This study was designed to clarify the clinical and pathologic features of diffusely infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Diffusely infiltrative squamous cell carcinomas were classified grossly into two types, namely, scirrhous carcinoma and nonscirrhous carcinoma. There were seven patients with the former type and three with the latter type. Scirrhous-type carcinoma was associated with a prominently thickened esophageal wall with strictures, whereas nonscirrhous-type carcinoma demonstrated thickening of the esophageal wall without strictures. Microscopically, all patients had lymph node metastases and lymphatic invasion. Blood vessel invasion was found in seven patients and extranodal invasion was found in seven. The prognosis of patients with both types of carcinoma was extremely poor. Only two patients who underwent curative surgery as well as chemoradiotherapy survived for more than 1 year. Therefore, further morphological studies on the early stages of diffusely infiltrating esophageal carcinoma should be performed. New treatment strategies such as intensive preoperative chemoradiotherapy based on sensitivity tests in individual patients will be required for treating the advanced stages of this disease.

Gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving gastrectomy in comparison with conventional subtotal gastrectomy for early gastric carcinoma.

Year 1998
Imada T. Rino Y. Takahashi M. Hatori S. Tanaka J. Shiozawa M. Chin C. Yamamoto Y. Amano T. Nakamura K.
First Department of Surgery, Yokohama City University, School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
It is well known that surgical intervention on the stomach will greatly alter gastric function and gastric emptying. In this study, we evaluated the difference in postoperative gastric remnant emptying following pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) and conventional subtotal gastrectomy (CDG) using sulfamethizole capsule food. The subjects comprised 18 patients who underwent PPG and 23 who underwent CDG for early gastric carcinoma. While delayed gastric emptying was observed early after PPG, 1 year after PPG it was markedly accelerated compared with that measured in the early postoperative period. However, it was slower than that in the CDG patients. On the other hand, rapid gastric emptying was observed early after CDG and did not change with time. These findings stress that although PPG results in stasis in the early postoperative period, it seems to prevent unduly rapid emptying.

The relationship of Helicobacter pylori colonization, the serum pepsinogen A level, and gastric resection.

Year 1998
Chang FY. Lu CL. Chen TS. Hou MC. Lee SD.
Division of Gastroenterology, Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
The serum levels of pepsinogen A (PGA) were measured in patients who underwent various forms of gastric resection to assess whether Helicobacter pylori (HP) colonization has any influence. Included in this study were 48 patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy for a peptic ulcer (SGPU), 36 who underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma (SGGC), 16 who underwent truncal vagotomy plus antrectomy (TV + AE), 24 with recurrent ulcer (RU) and 27 who underwent total gastrectomy (TG). The mean serum PGA levels in these five groups and in 40 healthy controls were 49.1 +/- 30.4 ng/ml, 30.0 +/- 14.8 ng/ml, 44.8 +/- 21.7 ng/ml, 66.4 +/- 42.8 ng/ml, 8.7 +/- 3.0 ng/ml, and 94.7 +/- 27.9 ng/ml, respectively. All patients except those with RU showed a diminished PGA level. The HP colonization rates of the patients who underwent partial resection were 45.8%, 22.2%, 50%, and 54.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). Age, gender, smoking, the type of gastroenterostomy, and underlying disease did not exert any influence on the measured PGA levels. However, higher PGA levels were observed in HP-colonized patients who either underwent SGPU or had RU. We conclude that various forms of distal gastrectomy, but not RU, elicit an indistinguishable acid secretory ability while HP colonization is responsible for the higher serum PGA levels in some patients following peptic ulcer surgery.

Apoptosis as a prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma.

Year 1998
Sugamura K. Makino M. Kaibara N.
First Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.
We investigated the occurrence of apoptotic cell death in 104 colorectal carcinomas by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP-diotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) to determine whether apoptosis could be a useful prognostic factor. The apoptotic index (AI) was calculated as the percentage of positive cancer cells per 1,000 cancer cells, the median AI being 4.1, with a range of 1.9-4.7. Apoptosis was less frequently observed in tumors with higher malignant potential, such as those at advanced stages Dukes B, C and D, than those at Dukes stage A (P < 0.05); in tumors showing evidence of moderate differentiation than in well-differentiated tumors (P < 0.05); and in tumors with venous invasion or lymph node metastasis than in those without these features (P < 0.05). Moreover, the subgroup of patients with a low AI of < 4.1 had a significantly poorer survival rate than the subgroup with a high AI in tumors at Dukes stage C, the 5-year survival rates being 33% vs 68% (P < 0.05; Cox-Mantel). Our findings suggest that less apoptosis might result in a greater progression of colorectal carcinoma, and that the rate of apoptosis might be an indicator of the degree of malignancy. Thus it would appear that the frequency of apoptosis in tumor cells could be a useful prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma.

The first cooperative living-related donor liver transplantation performed by two separate institution teams: The Kanagawa Liver Transplantation Program.

Year 1998
Ohhama Y. Shinkai M. Fujita S. Nishi T. Yamamoto H. Torigai K. Satoh A. Takemiya S. Sugimasa Y. Akaike M. Tanabe H.
Department of Surgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.
With the cooperation of surgeons in two separate institutes, living-related donor liver transplantation was safely performed at the Kanagawa Children's Medical Center. The donor operations were carried out at Kanagawa Cancer Center by surgeons of the hepatobiliary division and the liver grafts were immediately transported to Kanagawa Children's Medical Center by ambulance, and transplanted orthotopically. Since January 1995, five children with biliary atresia have been given partial liver grafts obtained from their mothers. The liver grafts were transported within 20 min, and functioned immediately after transplantation. The development of a pediatric liver transplantation program requires a multidisciplinary approach that can be provided only in a large tertiary referral children's medical center. Preparation for the clinical program involves training of surgical and nursing team members, both in an animal laboratory and at an established liver transplantation center. Special support for the program by the institute is essential and involves medical, nursing, and administrative divisions as well as social services, operating room personnel, and intensive care unit facilities. After careful planning, and with the invaluable help of the donor operating team, the Kanagawa Liver Transplantation Program has been realized, and its first transplantations conducted safely and successfully.

Simultaneous resection of gastric carcinoma and splenectomy in a patient with polycythemia vera: report of a case.

Year 1998
Yoshizumi Y. Koike H. Shibata H. Morisaki Y. Aikou S. Sugiura Y. Tanaka S.
Department of Surgery II, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan.
We report herein the case of a 57-year-old man who underwent resection of gastric carcinoma after being treated for polycythemia vera (PV) for 16 months. He was admitted with gastrointestinal bleeding; barium meal roentogenogram and endoscopic examination subsequently revealed a Borrmann type II carcinoma in the cardia of the stomach with extension into the lower esophagus. Thus, a lower esophagogastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and lymph node dissection were performed. Although an insufficiency of the esophagojejunal anastomosis occurred, the patient suffered no hematologic complications in the setting of careful myelosuppressive and antiplatelet coagulation therapy. He is currently doing well 5 years after his operation, with grade 1 performance status and no signs of recurrence or any hematologic complications.

Endobronchial metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma: report of a case.

Year 1998
Tayama K. Ohtsuka S. Hayashi A. Takamori S. Shirouzu K.
First Department of Surgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, Japan.
We herein report a case of late endobronchial metastasis after the resection of a primary rectal adenocarcinoma. A 51-year-old man underwent a resection of rectal adenocarcinoma. Five years postoperatively, he underwent a right sleeve upper lobectomy for a right endobronchial tumor. The resected tumor was diagnosed to be endobronchial metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the relationship between the two tumors was analyzed using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining. Endobronchial adenocarcinoma had strong homogeneous staining patterns and identical biochemical characteristics to rectal adenocarcinoma.

Nonfunctional paraganglioma of the pancreas: report of a case.

Year 1998
Fujino Y. Nagata Y. Ogino K. Watahiki H. Ogawa H. Saitoh Y.
Department of Surgery, Seirei-Mikatabara Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan.
We report herein the case of a 61-year-old man found to have a rare nonfunctional paraganglioma of the pancreas. Interestingly, the preoperative data and images showed similar characteristics to neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Both paragangliomas and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas belong to the category of Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation (APUD) tumors (APUDomas). Thus, it is important to examine the serum level of pancreatic endocrine hormones and a variety of peptides to differentiate paragangliomas of the pancreas from other pancreatic tumors. Paragangliomas of the pancreas grow slowly, so radical resection is recommended to achieve curability with a good prognosis.

Ovarian teratoma with gliomatosis peritonei: report of two cases.

Year 1998
Hamada Y. Tanano A. Sato M. Tsuji M. Sakaida N. Okamura A. Hioki K.
Second Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.
Gliomatosis peritonei, a rare condition related to ovarian teratomas, involves the peritoneal implantation of numerous nodules of predominantly mature glial tissues. We report herein the cases of two patients with immature ovarian teratoma associated with gliomatosis peritonei, in one of whom a rapid progression of teratomatous implants occurred 14 weeks after her initial surgery. Gliomatosis peritonei is considered benign in most cases; however, some reports have documented the rapid recurrence of immature peritoneal implants, as implantation is associated with teratomas of all grades. Thus, in the face of peritoneal implants suspected to be of a teratomatous nature, thorough and extensive sampling is essential to exclude the presence of immature elements which may imply a poor prognosis and require aggressive therapy.

Epidural administration of droperidol suppresses cisplatin-induced emesis: preliminary findings.

Year 1998
Iwama H. Arai M.
Department of Surgery, Central Aizu General Hospital, Fukushima, Japan.
To evaluate the antiemetic effect of the epidural administration of droperidol on cisplatin-induced emesis, nine adult gastric cancer patients receiving intraoperative cisplatin chemotherapy were studied. After removal of the stomach, 0.05 mg/kg droperidol with 5 ml saline was injected into the epidural space through the epidural catheter. Thirty minutes later, 60 mg/m2 cisplatin was administered intravenously over 1h. Subsequently, the same dose of droperidol was also injected epidurally every 6 h for 18 h. Postoperatively, the antiemetic effect was evaluated until 30 h after the first epidural droperidol. As a result, all patients expressed almost complete antiemesis until 25 h. After 26 h, some patients complained of mild emesis. No potential side effects, such as hypotension, consciousness disturbance, and extrapyramidal signs, were noticed. Therefore, the present pilot study implies that a sole epidural administration of droperidol remarkably suppresses cisplatin-induced emesis.

Endoscopic manometry of the sphincter of Oddi in patients with Lemmels syndrome.

Year 1998
Tomita R. Tanjoh K.
First Department of Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Endoscopic manometry was performed to evaluate the motor activity of the sphincter of Oddi (OS) in six patients with Lemmel's syndrome, four of whom had acute cholangitis and two of whom had acute pancreatitis. As controls, 24 patients undergoing cholecystectomy without juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula (JPD) for cholelithiasis or cholesterol polyps in the gallbladder were also studied. The OS basal pressure and contraction pressure values were 12.4 +/- 5.1 mmHg and 103.4 +/- 24.3 mmHg, respectively, in the patients with Lemmel's syndrome, and 19.5 +/- 5.1 mmHg and 136.8 +/- 28.2 mmHg, respectively, in the control patients. These differences between the groups were statistically significant; however, the wave frequency was not significantly different between the groups. The mean percentages of antegrade, simultaneous, and retrograde sequences were 37.5% +/- 11.3%, 19.9% +/- 8.7%, and 43.4% +/- 11.7%, respectively, in the patients with Lemmel's syndrome, and 66.5% +/- 11.0%, 20.2% +/- 4.7%, and 14.3% +/- 9.2%, respectively, in the controls. The differences between the groups were significant (P < 0.01) for the antegrade and retrograde sequences. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the OS in patients with Lemmel's syndrome could be important in the development of hepatocholangiopancreatic disease caused by duodenobiliary and duodenopancreatic reflux.

Serum cell adhesion molecules in patients with colorectal cancer.

Year 1998
Kitagawa T. Matsumoto K. Iriyama K.
Second Department of Surgery, Mie University School of Medicine, Edobashi, Tsu, Japan.
The serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (sELAM-1) were determined in 40 patients with colorectal cancer. The sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 levels in the drainage venous blood adjacent to a tumor were significantly correlated with those in the peripheral venous blood in patients without evident hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells. The sICAM-1 levels in peripheral venous blood were significantly higher in patients with hepatic metastases, while the sELAM-1 levels were significantly higher in those with pulmonary metastases. An immunohistochemical study of metastatic sites in the liver revealed that ICAM-1 was expressed in cancer stroma, but not in the cancer cells. In conclusion, the sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 levels in the peripheral venous blood in colorectal cancer patients without any distant metastasis are likely to reflect the topical production of these cell adhesion molecules, and appear to be instructive in predicting hematogenous dissemination in patients with colorectal cancer.

Massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage caused by a giant exogastric leiomyoblastoma.

Year 1998
Karatzas G. Kouraklis G. Delladetsima J. Glinavou A. Karayiannacos P.
Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Science, University of Athens, Greece.
Leiomyoblastomas account for a small percentage of smooth muscle tumors of the stomach. Intraperitoneal bleeding is an unusual and unexpected presenting sign. We herein present a 43-year-old woman who was urgently operated on due to signs of collapse. A large hemorrhagic mass measuring 25 x 18 x 15 cm was found arising from the greater curvature of the stomach. A histologic examination demonstrated rounded and spindle cells, and rare mitoses were also seen. Although the number of mitoses was small, the lesion was nevertheless felt to be consistent with malignant leiomyoblastoma because of its large size. Three years later the patient is doing well with no evidence of tumor recurrence. We conclude that intraperitoneal bleeding due to leiomyoblastoma of the gastrointestinal tract is an extremely rare phenomenon and has been described only in a few reports, and only one other previous case presented with signs of collapse.

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the stomach: report of two cases.

Year 1998
Wada Y. Matsushita T. Sarumaru S. Ryo J. Isobe H. Satoh B. Kanaya S. Katayama T. Ohtoshi M.
Department of Surgery, Himeji National Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the stomach is very rare, and only four cases have been reported. As a result, there is still little understanding of its clinical and pathological features. We recently experienced two cases of gastric MFH. The first case was a 78-year-old man with epigastralgia and a loss of body weight. Endoscopy revealed an ulcerated submucosal tumor. A gastrectomy was performed and the diagnosis of MFH was made histopathologically. The second case was a 77-year-old man with pulmonary symptoms. An image diagnosis indicated a strong suspicion of lung cancer, and a right middle and lower lobectomy was thus performed. One month after the operation, a bleeding gastric tumor was found and therefore a gastrectomy was performed. Both tumors were diagnosed as MFH. From the analysis of six reported cases including ours, a preoperative correct diagnosis is found to be difficult although the lesion has grown to a considerable size at the time of operation. Since a metastatic lung lesion was first detected in two out of six cases, it is thus recommended that the stomach should be examined when lung MFH is found. Considering the high mortality and the short survival in the six cases, the prognosis for gastric MFH seems to be poorer than that in the extremities. However, lymph node metastasis is uncommon, and a curative resection is possible in some cases such as in our second case.

Colonoscopic diagnosis of lymphoid hyperplasia causing recurrent intussusception: report of a case.

Year 1998
Hasegawa T. Ueda S. Tazuke Y. Monta O. Sakurai T. Takahara N. Tanaka T. Habukawa C.
Division of Pediatric Surgery, Kinan General Hospital, Tanabe City, Wakayama, Japan.
This paper describes a 6-year-old boy with recurrent ileocecal intussusception due to lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum, which was diagnosed preoperatively by colonoscopy. At the age of 3 years, he developed diarrhea and a tender abdominal mass. He was diagnosed as having intussusception by ultrasound and was treated by hydrostatic barium enema. After resolution, he had three recurrent episodes of intussusception. A contrast barium enema revealed a small mass in the ileocecal region. Colonoscopy showed several exaggerated folds of the terminal ileum and a biopsy showed lymphoid hyperplasia. Because the repeated intussusception seemed to have been caused by the lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum, he underwent an ileocecal resection without any subsequent recurrence. Based on the above findings, we conclude that a colonoscopy may thus be useful both for diagnosing lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum as a cause of recurrent intussusception and for deciding how to manage it.

Amebic liver abscess with jaundice.

Year 1998
Sarda AK. Kannan R. Gupta A. Mahajan V. Jain PK. Prasad S.
Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak Hospital, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi, India.
A case of an amebic liver abscess with unusual clinical manifestations is presented. A middle-aged male with an abscess in both lobes of the liver presented with obstructive jaundice due to pressure on the porta hepatis with stasis of the bile in the intrahepatic biliary radicals. The patient did not respond to repeated needle aspirations and thus required open drainage. Subsequently, the patient developed a biliary leak through the drainage sites, and an injection of contrast dye into the cavity revealed a communication between the abscess cavities and the biliary tree. The biliary leak stopped spontaneously, and the large cavities also closed completely during the followup period.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients undergoing anticoagulant therapy.

Year 1998
Yoshida T. Kitano S. Matsumoto T. Bandoh T. Baatar D. Ninomiya K. Hadama T.
First Department of Surgery, Oita Medical University, Hasama, Japan.
We recently performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on three patients receiving preoperative oral anticoagulant therapy. The patients requiring anticoagulants for pre-existing cardiac conditions have the following risks at surgery: thromboembolism, hemorrhage, endocarditis, and cardiopulmonary dysfunction. In patients receiving anticoagulant therapy, one must thus maintain a balanced international normalized ratio of the prothrombin time to prevent thromboembolism or hemorrhage. Warfarin sodium was discontinued preoperatively in all patients. Heparin sodium was individualized according to each patient's risk of thromboembolism. As a result, these patients all underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy without complications. Attention was paid to achieve hemostasis in the operative field and the trocar inserted sites during the procedure. The administration of warfarin sodium was resumed on the first postoperative day in all patients. Restarting warfarin sodium early also helps to simplify postoperative management. A broad spectrum of antibiotic therapy was also used to reduce the risk of endocarditis. Each patient's cardiopulmonary function was carefully monitored. The minimal invasion experienced during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy may thus facilitate the management of gallstones in patients receiving systemic anticoagulation treatment based on the findings of this limited series.

Anomalous duplicated cystic duct as a surgical hazard: report of a case.

Year 1998
Fujikawa T. Takeda H. Matsusue S. Nakamura Y. Nishimura S.
Department of Abdominal Surgery, Tenri Hospital, Nara, Japan.
Anomalies of the biliary ductal system are not uncommon, and their clinical significance is variable. We present herein the case of a 70-year-old Japanese woman found to have an anomalous duplicated cystic duct, which is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. Intraoperative delineation of the anomaly by real-time cholangiograms assisted us in being able to subsequently perform a safe cholecystectomy. This case serves to demonstrate the importance of being aware of the possibility of potential biliary variations in order to avoid ductal injuries during biliary surgery.

The development of extrahepatic portal obstruction after undergoing multiple operations for a congenital dilatation of the bile duct: report of a case.

Year 1998
Furugaki K. Yoshida J. Hashizume M. Ota M. Tanaka M.
Department of Surgery I, Kyushu University, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.
As a long-term complication after undergoing a cystenterostomy for a congenital dilatation of the bile duct, liver cirrhosis due to stenosis of the anastomosis or reflux cholangitis has been reported in conjunction with subsequent portal hypertension. We treated a 48-year-old Japanese woman who developed both portal hypertension and pancytopenia after undergoing multiple operations for a congenital dilatation of the bile duct. She underwent a Hassab's operation in July 1994, when an occlusion of the extrahepatic portal vein, which resulted in portal hypertension, was first noted; the liver was microscopically normal. The etiology of the extrahepatic portal obstruction in our patient was most likely due to either repeated inflammation or adhesion at the hepatic hilus. Based on these findings, the differential diagnosis of portal hypertension after an operation for a congenital dilatation of the bile duct should therefore include an extrahepatic portal obstruction in addition to liver cirrhosis.

Primary anastomosis of the trachea: management and pitfalls.

Year 1998
Tsubota N. Yoshimura M. Miyamoto Y. Nakamura H. Minami H.
Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Hyogo Medical Center, Akashi, Japan.
Twenty-four patients with tracheal lesions were managed by various procedures, including primary anastomosis in 16, tracheoplasty in 2, and a terminal tracheostomy in 6. The patients undergoing anastomosis included 4 with primary tumors, 7 with secondary tumors, and 5 with benign stricture. Except for 2 patients, there was no leakage or stenosis after a resection of from two to nine tracheal rings. There were 4 patients in whom the laryngeal nerve was paralyzed on one side prior to resection and then was sacrificed on the other side because of tumor involvement. Because of difficulty in swallowing, the outcome was not satisfactory in the 3 patients despite a good anastomosis. Cricotracheal anastomosis was performed in 3 patients, and thyrotracheal anastomosis in 1. Two patients in whom the trachea and esophagus communicated were treated using pedicled intercostal muscle grafts. Tracheal stenosis can be observed in various pathological conditions. Consequently, the optimal treatment varies from patient to patient according to the type of a disease, the location and extent of a disease, and the condition of the laryngeal nerve, while it is also important to carefully select the most appropriate anesthetic method, approach, and type of reconstruction.

Benign esophageal stricture caused by diffuse severe esophagitis presenting as ascending fibrosis: report of a case.

Year 1998
Sashiyama H. Matsubara H. Koide Y. Matsubara H. Ochiai T. Isono K.
Second Department of Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine, Japan.
A 46-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for treatment of an esophageal stricture. Esophageal cancer was suspected after detailed investigations, and a right transthoracic esophagectomy was performed. The resected specimen showed only nonspecific esophagitis with severe fibrous thickening in the submucosa, but no evidence of malignancy. Between 1906 and 1993, only 19 similar cases of benign esophageal strictures with fibrous thickening, excluding congenital and iatrogenic strictures, have been reported in Japan. These lesions occurred in the middle to lower third of the esophagus in 15 of 19 cases (78.9%), and 8 of the 19 patients (42.1%) were aged between 30 and 50 years. The interval between onset and hospital admission was short, being less than 1 year in 8 of the 12 patients for whom this information was available. Our patient demonstrated a disorder resembling the diffuse severe esophagitis described by Roth in 1974.

Hepatic infarction as a complication of gastric cancer surgery: report of four cases.

Year 1998
Kitagawa T. Iriyama K.
Second Department of Surgery, Mie University School of Medicine, Edobashi, Tsu, Japan.
Four cases of patients who developed hepatic infarction caused by an operative injury to the hepatic circulation during gastric cancer surgery are reported herein. In two patients, the hepatic infarction resulted from accidental injury to the proper hepatic artery, and in the other two, it was possibly due to persistent pressure on the folded liver by a retractor during surgery. In the former two patients, the proper hepatic artery had been collapsed by the spread of enlarged metastatic lymph nodes before the onset of the arterial injury. In the latter two patients, postoperative laboratory data and computed tomography scanning revealed hepatic infarction even though preservation of the proper hepatic artery was confirmed by angiography. Elevated serum levels of hepatic enzymes released from the infarcted tissue recovered to the normal range within three weeks in all four patients. In conclusion, when an operative injury to the hepatic artery is encountered, the hepatoduodenal ligament should not be manipulated any more than necessary to preserve the collaterals, and the gallbladder should be removed to prevent necrotic perforation. Although close observation is mandatory, conservative therapy seems to be sufficient when an infarcted area is restricted to the lateral segment and a small part of the medial segment of the liver.

Treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma by hepatectomy with right and middle hepatic vein reconstruction using total vascular exclusion with extracorporeal bypass and hypothermic hepatic perfusion: report of a case.

Year 1998
Wakabayashi H. Maeba T. Okano K. Arioka I. Okada S. Maeta H.
First Department of Surgery, Kagawa Medical School, Japan.
We report herein the case of a patient who had previously undergone a lateral segmentectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom recurrent HCC invading the trunk of the right and middle hepatic veins in a damaged liver was treated by reconstruction of both hepatic veins, using total vascular exclusion with extracorporeal bypass and hypothermic hepatic perfusion. Reconstruction was performed using a graft taken from the left external iliac vein and divided into two pieces. Hepatic ischemia lasted for 91 min during the procedure and the intrahepatic temperature, as monitored by inserting a needle-type thermometer, was decreased to 11 degrees C throughout the procedure. The peak levels of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin were 363 IU/l, 1198 IU/ml, and 2.8 mg/dl, respectively, on postoperative day (POD) 2. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful except for mild, temporary swelling of the left leg. Postoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations disclosed no obstruction of either graft, and the patient was discharged on POD 40.

Diagnosis and management of metastatic gastrinoma by multimodality treatment including liver transplantation: report of a case.

Year 1998
Gottwald T. Koveker G. Busing M. Lauchart W. Becker HD.
Department of General Surgery, Eberhard-Karls-University, Tubingen, Germany.
Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas are being recognized with increasing frequency, not because the incidence has increased, but as a result of improvements in diagnostic tools such as radioimmunoassays for a variety of circulating peptides, and imaging methods that include positron emission tomography (PET) and immunoscintigraphy. Nevertheless, establishing the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor is always a challenge to the clinician from both diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. Liver transplantation as the ultimate therapeutic, or at least palliative, option for hepatic metastases has produced contradictory results over the past decade. We report herein the case of a 23-year-old woman who, after being diagnosed with gastrinoma in 1989, underwent the complete therapeutic array including liver transplantation for hepatic metastases in 1991. Although an extrahepatic tumor recurred 2 years later, for which double chemotherapy with 5-FU and streptozotocin was given, she is currently leading a normal life with a full-time job. This case prompted a critical review of the current literature on diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment.

Repeated percutaneous aspiration therapy prior to surgery for a pancreatic pseudocyst: report of a case.

Year 1998
Seki H. Ueda T. Kasuya T. Kotanagi H.
Department of Surgery, Hokushu Central Hospital, Akita, Japan.
We describe herein the case of a patient with a giant pancreatic pseudocyst which was first treated with repeated percutaneous aspiration therapy, then cured surgically by a Roux-en Y cystojejunostomy, 26 weeks after its formation. A 41-year-old man developed alcohol-induced acute severe pancreatitis. Computed tomography (CT) performed 10 weeks after the onset revealed a giant cyst, 20 x 18 x 7cm in size, arising from the body and tail of the pancreas and extending to the left loin. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) showed a normal main pancreatic duct without communication to the pseudocyst. As the asymptomatic pseudocyst, the wall of which was less than 2mm thick, had not resolved by 8 weeks after its formation, percutaneous aspiration therapy was performed three times. The patient was treated as an outpatient without any complications. The cyst wall was subsequently confirmed to be mature enough for surgical management to be initiated, and a cystojejunostomy was safely performed. Thus, percutaneous aspiration therapy can enable the surgeon to observe maturation of the cyst wall for a long period in patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst.

Genetic changes in primary colorectal cancer by comparative genomic hybridization.

Year 1998
Nakao K. Shibusawa M. Tsunoda A. Yoshizawa H. Murakami M. Kusano M. Uesugi N. Sasaki K.
Second Department of Surgery, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful new technique for the molecular cytogenetic analysis of cancer. In this method, at first the cancer DNA and normal DNA are labeled with biotin and digoxigenin, respectively, and then the labeled DNAs are applied onto normal lymphocyte metaphase preparations in hybridization. After hybridization, they are stained with FITC and rhodamine, respectively, so chromosomal gains and losses in cancer are thus detected by using a green:red ratio. In this study, we analyzed the abnormal chromosomes in nine cases with human primary colon cancer. A gain in chromosomes 11p, 12q, 16p, 20p, and 20q were observed, while a loss of 18q and 22q were discovered. CGH may thus provide us with important information for analyzing the genes in colon cancer.

Angiogenesis in poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma of the stomach.

Year 1998
Takahashi Y. Ellis LM. Ohta T. Mai M.
Department of Surgery, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Japan.
We studied the role of angiogenesis in patients with medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (MTPDA) of the stomach. Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted using antibodies against factor VIII (endothelial cells), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (KDR andflt-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and its receptors (bek andflg). Archival specimens of MTPDA (n=22) and non-MTPDA (n=47) were studied. The expression of VEGF and bFGF, the vessel count, and positivity of KDR on endothelium were all significantly higher in MTPDA than in non-MTPDA. The vessel count correlated with the VEGF expression in MTPDA. The vessel count and VEGF expression increased with the increasing stage of disease in MTPDA but not in non-MTPDA. The expression of bFGF and its receptors did not correlate with the vessel count and stage of disease in either type. These findings thus suggest that the biological behavior of medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach is angiogenesis-dependent. The correlation of the VEGF expression and its endothelial receptors with the vessel count and the stage of disease thus suggests that VEGF is a factor responsible for the induction of angiogenesis in this type.

Plasma D-dimer level in patients with colorectal cancer: its role as a tumor marker.

Year 1998
Oya M. Akiyama Y. Yanagida T. Akao S. Ishikawa H.
Department of Surgery, Koshigaya Hospital, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Saitama, Japan.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the preoperative plasma D-dimer (DD) levels and the tumor pathology of colorectal cancer. The plasma DD levels were measured preoperatively in 108 patients with colorectal cancer, and then were correlated with the tumor pathology and stage. The diagnostic value of the DD levels for the tumor stage was then compared with that of the preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. The preoperative DD levels were higher in patients with either a large-sized tumor or a tumor showing deep wall penetration. Lymph-node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, hepatic metastasis, and peritoneal dissemination were all associated with higher DD levels. A stepwise increase in the median DD level was found with the tumor stage. The preoperative DD levels also significantly correlated with CEA levels. When a cutoff value of 0.6 microg/ml was used in the DD assay, the sensitivity and specificity for Dukes C or D cancer were 67.2% and 64.0%, and those for Dukes D cancer were 91.3% and 57.6%, respectively. Although the DD assay was less specific, its diagnostic value in the preoperative staging of colorectal cancer was comparable to that of the CEA assay. The measurement of the preoperative DD level is thus considered to be useful for the preoperative staging of colorectal cancer.

Synovial sarcoma of the esophagus: report of a case.

Year 1998
Habu S. Okamoto E. Toyosaka A. Nakai Y. Takeuchi M.
First Department of Surgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.
Synovial sarcomas are exceedingly rare neoplasms of the digestive tract. We herein report a case of a synovial sarcoma occurring in the esophagus of a 20-year-old man. He had a history of acute lymphocytic leukemia and had undergone aggressive chemotherapy between the ages of 4 and 8 years. The tumor, which was large and extended into the upper mediastinum, was successfully resected without an esophagectomy via the cervical approach. After postoperative radiation and chemotherapy, the patient remained healthy, without any evidence of disease 20 months after the operation.

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus associated with adenocarcinoma of the lung.

Year 1998
Yano M. Shiozaki H. Murata A. Inoue M. Tamura S. Taniguchi M. Monden M.
Department of Surgery II, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan.
We herein report an extremely rare case of a 55-year-old Japanese woman with a primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus associated with adenocarcinoma of the lung. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a malignant melanoma of the lower esophagus. The chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) findings revealed an incidental abnormal shadow in the left lung, which was diagnosed to be adenocarcinoma of the lung by means of a CT-guided needle biopsy. After administering systemic chemotherapy with dacarbazine (DTIC), vincristine sulfate (VCR), and nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) plus interferon-beta, the esophageal tumor markedly decreased in size. Subsequently, the patient underwent a radical resection of both the malignant melanoma of the esophagus and lung cancer via a left thoracotomy and laparotomy.

Subclavian arterio-esophageal fistula secondary to fish bone impaction: report of a case.

Year 1998
Leow CK.
Department of Surgery, National University Hospital, Republic of Singapore.
A 48-year-old Indian man swallowed a fish bone and presented 1 week later with dysphagia, following a single episode of fresh hematemesis. A barium swallow demonstrated a horizontal mucosal tear at the level of the aortic arch, and computed tomography (CT) showed mediastinal emphysema and a bleeding point medial to the left subclavian artery which appeared to be contained by a surrounding hematoma. Subsequently, he developed sudden massive hematemesis and collapsed. Despite emergency surgery, the patient died. At the postmortem examination, a 1.2-cm fistula tract was found connecting the esophagus to the left subclavian artery. This case report emphasizes that a diagnosis of arterio-esophageal fistula should be considered if a patient presents with fresh hematemesis and a recent history of foreign body ingestion.

Gastric outlet syndrome caused by a gallstone: report of a case.

Year 1998
Nyui S. Osanai H. Masuoka H. Ohba S. Ebata T. Yoshida Y.
Department of Surgery, Sapporo Memorial Hospital of Surgery, Japan.
An extremely unusual case of gastric outlet syndrome, otherwise known as Bouveret's syndrome, caused by a large gallstone impacted in the duodenum due to a cholecystoduodenal fistula (CDF), is described herein. Another large gallstone impacted in the CDF itself was also detected. As endoscopic extraction of the gallstone from the duodenum proved unsuccessful, and a laparotomy was required. Our patient, being 88 years old, is probably the oldest patient recorded in the literature of this syndrome. The methods of establishing a correct diagnosis by endoscopy and recent therapeutic strategies are discussed following the case report.

Colonic obstruction induced by plasma cell granuloma of the transverse colon: report of a case.

Year 1998
Ohno M. Nakamura T. Ohbayashi C. Tabuchi Y. Nogi Y. Saitoh Y.
First Department of Surgery, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.
Plasma cell granuloma is mainly composed of reactive plasma cell proliferation, the origin of which is uncertain. Immunohistochemically, the plasma cells are characterized by a polyclonal nature, and must be distinguished from plasmacytoma which displays a monoclonal nature. This tumor is most commonly found in the lung and bronchus, but has rarely been described in the alimentary tract. We report herein a case of plasma cell granuloma of the transverse colon. A 71-year-old woman was admitted for lower abdominal pain with severe inflammation and anemia. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography showed an abdominal tumor. Barium enema revealed the tumor to be located in the transverse colon causing colonic obstruction. The resected tumor was spherical and mainly spread in the submucosal layer. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of severe infiltration of mature plasma cells within the spindle-shaped myofibroblasts. Immunohistochemical studies showed IgA, IgG, IgM, and kappa and lambda chains, and revealed a polyclonal nature of the plasma cells. Thus, a pathological diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma affecting the transverse colon was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful surgical resection of plasma cell granuloma of the colon.

Primary aortoenteric fistula with a chronic isolated abdominal aortic dissection: report of a case.

Year 1998
Akiyama K. Hirota J. Takiguchi M. Ohsawa S. Nagumo T. Sasaki S.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Iwaki Kyoritsu General Hospital, Iwaki City, Fukushima, Japan.
A 47-year-old woman on long-term hemodialysis due to a chronic isolated abdominal aortic dissection was admitted to our department with severe abdominal pain. She had not suffered any hematemesis or melena. An emergency laparotomy revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a diameter of 60mm, densely adhered to the ileum. An aortoenteric fistula manifesting as intramural rupture into the ileum was found after infrarenal abdominal aortic and bilateral common iliac cross-clamping. The fistula on the ileac side was nontransmural, but that on the aortic side communicated with the pseudolumen of the abdominal aorta, and contained mural thrombus. The infrarenal abdominal aorta and bilateral common iliac arteries were replaced with a collagen-sealed woven Dacron bifurcated graft. Histological examination of the ileum in this portion showed intramural bleeding and xanthomatous granulation with foam cell infiltration in the thickened subserosa. While it is difficult to diagnose nonpenetrating aortoenteric fistula preoperatively, such a fistula must be considered in a patient with severe abdominal pain, for whom previous abdominal aortic surgery has been performed or when an abdominal aneurysm is observed. To our knowledge, no other case of an aortoenteric fistula presenting as an intramural rupture into the ileum in an isolated abdominal aortic dissection has ever been reported.

Thoracoscopic enucleation of a submucosal bronchogenic cyst of the esophagus: report of two cases.

Year 1998
Koizumi K. Tanaka S. Haraguchi S. Akiyama H. Mikami I. Fukushima M. Kubokura H. Kawamoto M.
Second Department of Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.
Thoracoscopic enucleation of a bronchogenic cyst of the esophagus was successfully performed in two cases. The first patient was a 26-year-old female complaining of dysphagia and retrosternal discomfort. The second patient was a 56-year-old female complaining of retrosternal discomfort. A close examination revealed a cystic lesion compressing the esophagus in both cases. Three trocars were employed under general anesthesia. Thoracoscopy offering excellent visualization allowed us to perform a precise anatomical dissection between the muscle layer and the mucosa. Both patients recovered uneventfully and the symptoms disappeared postoperatively. Thoracoscopic surgery is thus considered to be beneficial for the treatment of a benign esophageal tumor because of the small chest wall entry, which might positively contribute to a favorable postoperative course.

Malignant thymoma with direct invasion into the peritoneal cavity: report of a case.

Year 1998
Fujikawa T. Nakamura Y. Matsusue S. Takeda H. Kori Y. Sonobe M.
Department of Abdomino-general Surgery, Tenri Hospital, Nara, Japan.
Extrathoracic invasions or metastases from thymomas are extremely rare. We describe herein the case of a patient with malignant thymoma which recurred three times during an 8-year period and invaded directly into the peritoneal cavity, involving the gastrointestinal tract. The huge thymoma was completely resected, along with the fornix of the stomach, the transverse colon, and the 8th, 9th, and 10th ribs. Careful observation and multidisciplinary treatment against recurrent thymoma will be requisite for this patient, even though the tumor has been completely resected.

Intraoperative radiation therapy for a patient with bulky disease of mesenteric non-Hodgkins lymphoma.

Year 1998
Yamaue H. Tanimura H. Terasawa H. Nakatani Y. Tsunoda T. Tani M. Iwahashi M.
Second Department of Surgery, Wakayama Medical School, Japan.
A long survival is rarely observed in patients demonstrating recurrent malignant lymphoma with bulky disease because of the appearance of chemoresistant tumor cells after extensive chemotherapy, and moreover the presence of bulky disease has also been consistently associated with a poorer response rate and a shortened survival, due to the fact that tumor size is the most significant factor for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We herein describe a case of a 53-year-old woman presenting with the chief complaint of abdominal fullness, who underwent intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for recurrent bulky non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the mesenterium. The patient has had no evidence of tumor recurrence, based on the findings of regular abdominal computed tomographic scans, 60 months after initial chemotherapy and 28 months after IORT.

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