Magnetic resonance imaging of focal and diffuse hepatic disease.
Siegelman ES. Outwater EK.
Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia 19104-4283, USA.
MRI is a powerful tool in the detection and characterization of both focal and diffuse liver pathology. Because of superior soft tissue characterization, direct multi-planar capabilities and lack of ionizing radiation, current state of the art MRI is useful when contrast CT is relatively contraindicated or not definitive. This article reviews the MRI findings of the most common focal and diffuse liver diseases encountered in clinical practice. Reviews of current MR techniques and MR contrast agents used in liver imaging have been recently published. For this article, discussion of specific techniques and use of contrast is addressed for each pathological entity discussed.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas and biliary tree.
Mammone JF. Siegelman ES. Outwater EK.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, UMDNJ, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Cooper Hospital-University Medical Center, Camden 08103, USA.
MRI of the pancreas and bile ducts is becoming more widely used due to recent advances in surface coils, breath-hold imaging techniques, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). MRI provides a comprehensive and accurate examination for the detection, staging, and characterization of a variety of developmental, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes that involve the pancreas.
MR imaging of the prostate and bladder.
Cheng D. Tempany CM.
Department of Clinical MRI, Brigham's and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Magnetic resonance imaging has become an important imaging modality for the male pelvis. Its unparalleled ability to depict soft tissue structures and highlight pathology have made it the best method for determining the extent of many disease processes. This article reviews the use of MR to evaluate diseases of the prostate gland and bladder. In both, the major indication for imaging is the local staging of cancer, and MR is currently the best imaging modality. This article will discuss the critical clinical issues concerning prostate cancer and neoplasms of the bladder, and the contribution of MR imaging.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of the abdominal organs: imaging features.
Gore RM. Miller FH. Yaghmai V.
Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL, USA.
The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas, and kidneys are commonly affected by opportunistic infection, malignancy, and inflammatory disorders during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Clinical manifestations of solid abdominal visceral involvement are protean and usually nonspecific, but it is important to establish a specific diagnosis promptly in these often critically ill patients. This presentation reviews the cross-sectional imaging spectrum of HIV-associated lesions of these organs.
Radiologic evaluation of the acute abdomen in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): the role of CT scanning.
Wu CM. Davis F. Fishman EK.
Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Abdominal complaints are common in the HIV-infected patient, and the signs and symptoms of disease may be masked by concurrent illness and a weak immune response, making accurate diagnosis difficult. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are susceptible to diseases common to the general population; however, their generalized state of immunodeficiency places them at increased risk for many unusual disorders, predominately infectious and neoplastic. Radiologic evaluation, in particular, computed tomography (CT) with its ability to image the entire abdomen and pelvis, plays a crucial role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment of these patients.
Bloodborne pathogens and procedure safety in interventional radiology.
Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern, Medical Center, Dallas, USA.
Concern about possible transmission of bloodborne pathogens during medical procedures is growing among patients and healthcare workers alike. This fear has primarily been focused on nosocomial transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but other bloodborne infectious agents may also be transmitted during procedures. Chief among these are the hepatitis viruses, particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), both of which are significantly more widespread than HIV. Although radiology is not traditionally thought of as a field with significant risk for exposure to or transmission of pathogens, the expanding role of interventional procedures in recent years belies that perception. The potential for exposure to blood or other possibly infectious material exists in virtually any invasive radiological procedure, from arteriography to image-guided biopsy. Fortunately, the risk of such exposure is low, and the risk of actual transmission of a bloodborne pathogen, whether from patient to healthcare worker or vice versa, is even lower. Nevertheless, it is important for all radiologists who perform invasive procedures to be aware of these risks and to observe pertinent safety and infection control recommendations. This article will review these topics.