[Bronchial endoscopy under local anesthesia and pain in children. The value of a nitrous oxide-oxygen combination]
Garcia J. Roure P. Hayem C. Dupont D.
Departement de Pneumologie et d'Anesthesie, Hopital Lenval, Nice.
To evaluate the efficacy of continuous administration of 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen for reducing pain during flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy 32 children aged 3-60 months were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. Indications for endoscopy included persistent atelectasis (6), wheezing (10) cystic fibrosis (2) pneumonia (11) persistent cough (3). All patients received Midazolam (0.3 mg/kg) atropine (20 mcg/kg) intra rectaly 20 minutes before the procedure. The flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope (Olympus BF3C4) was inserted transnasally through a face mask. Topical anesthesia with 1% lidocaine hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) was applied to the nose, larynx, trachea and bronchial tree over 15 minutes through the suction chanel of the bronchoscope. All patients were monitored with a pulse oximeter and a cardiac monitor. The experimental group (n = 16) received 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen prior (3 minutes) and during flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, the control group (n = 16) received only oxygen. We measured pain of the children by a behavioral observation scale (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale: CHEOPS) at each phase of topical anesthesia during bronchoscopy in the two groups. At the end of bronchoscopy physician's satisfaction was scored by a visual analogue scale (VAS 0-100) in which 0 corresponded to absence of satisfaction. Nitrous oxide was associated with lesser pain scores than those with oxygen. Physician significantly preferred these procedure compared with oxygen. No complication occurred during procedure. Combined with local anesthesia midazolam and atropin the administration of 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen seems a better choice for flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children and should be used routinely.