Effect of pentoxifylline on radiation-induced G2-phase delay and radiosensitivity of human colon and cervical cancer cells.
Li YX. Weber-Johnson K. Sun LQ. Paschoud N. Mirimanoff RO. Coucke PA.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Cells of three adherent cell lines with mutated p53 (WiDr and C33-A) and disrupted p53 (C4-I) were used to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on radiation-induced G2-phase block and its relationship to radiosensitivity. Postirradiation exposure to 0.25-1.0 mM PTX resulted in an increase in radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner as determined by a clonogenic assay. The change in radiation sensitivity was quantified by calculating the enhancement ratio (ER) at a clinically relevant dose of 2 Gy; the ER for WiDr cells was 1.23+/-0.03 and 1.39+/-0.15 for 0.5 and 1.0 mM PTX, respectively. For C33-A cells, the ER ranged from 1.04+/-0.04 to 1.99+/-0.17 for 0.25-1.0 mM PTX, whereas for C4-I cells the values were 1.29+/-0.04 and 1.76+/-0.17 for 0.25 and 0.5 mM PTX. In asynchronous WiDr, C33-A and C4-I cells, flow cytometry analysis showed a dose-dependent accumulation of cells in G2/M phase which was detectable at 6 h and peaked at 12 h after irradiation. Such a G2/M-phase block was transient at a dose of 2 Gy and persisted at 48 or 72 h after a dose of 4 or 6 Gy. At 12 h after 2 Gy, PTX significantly reduced the radiation-induced G2/M-phase block in a dose-dependent manner. After the higher doses of 4 and 6 Gy, the dose-dependent G2-phase arrest was significantly alleviated at 24 h by treatment with PTX, and the kinetics of this alleviation depended on the radiation dose. The results demonstrate that human colon and cervical cancer cells characterized by a mutated or disrupted p53 (i.e. not transfected) are radiosensitized by PTX, which alleviates the postirradiation G2/M-phase block.