Screening for colorectal cancer.
Jednak MA. Nostrant TT.
Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0362, USA.
Randomized, controlled trials have shown with certainty that screening for colorectal cancer reduces morbidity and is cost-effective. Factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer include a personal or family history of adenomatous polyps or colorectal cancer, certain genetic syndromes and chronic inflammatory bowel disease.
Physical activity and the primary prevention of cancer.
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0707, USA.
Evidence has been accumulating that suggests that physical activity may help reduce the risk of cancer. Physically active people have been shown to have a decreased rate of all-cancer mortality. The incidence of colon, breast, and perhaps prostate cancer are decreased in more active people when compared with their sedentary peers. Chronic physical activity may decrease tumor risk by its effect on natural immunity, antioxidant defenses, improved energy balance, hormonal changes, or by other unknown mechanisms.