Dumon silicone stents in obstructive tracheobronchial lesions: the Hong Kong experience.
Abdullah V. Yim AP. Wormald PJ. van Hasselt CA.
Department of Surgery, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, N.T.
The insertion of intraluminal stents is an effective method of relieving the distressing symptom of asphyxia in patients with obstructive lesions in the trachea and main-stem bronchi. We report our experience in the use of the studded Dumon silicone stent (Endoxane prosthesis; Axion, Aubagne, France). Between February 1994 and August 1996, 42 stents were placed in 30 patients. Of the 27 patients with a malignant stricture, 10 had carcinoma of the bronchus, 13 carcinoma of the esophagus, and 4 metastatic carcinoma involving the tracheobronchial tree. The benign lesions were made up of two tuberculous strictures and one suprastomal stenosis after tracheostomy. Stents were placed through a rigid bronchoscope with patients under general anesthesia. Postplacement assessment was performed with a 10-point, symptom-based visual analog scale. In eight less urgent cases, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were determined before and after surgery. The mean symptomatic improvement on the 10-point scale was 6.1 points, whereas the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (in the eight patients tested) improved by 75%, and the forced vital capacity improved by 54%. The median survival was 2 months for patients with carcinoma of the bronchus and 3 months for patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Two patients with metastatic carcinoma and all of the patients with the benign lesions were alive and well after 12 months of follow-up. Insertion of the Dumon stent is a simple, safe, and effective method of countering the distressing symptoms arising from obstructive tracheobronchial lesions.
Vancomycin administration in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: the risk of ototoxicity.
Gendeh BS. Gibb AG. Aziz NS. Kong N. Zahir ZM.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
A prospective study was undertaken in 16 patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, with 22 episodes of peritonitis treated with vancomycin, a known ototoxic agent. Twelve patients had one episode each, and four had recurrent peritonitis. Each treatment course consisted of two infusions of vancomycin (30 mg/kg body weight) in 2 L of peritoneal dialysate administered at 6-day intervals. Serum vancomycin analyzed by enzyme immunoassay showed a mean trough level of 11.00 microg/ml on day 6 and mean serum levels of 33.8 and 38.6 microg/ml about 12 hours after administration on days 1 and 7, respectively. Similar levels, well within the therapeutic range, were encountered with repeated vancomycin therapy for recurrent episodes of peritonitis, suggesting that no changes occurred in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. Pure-tone audiometry, electronystagmography, and clinical assessment performed during each course of treatment showed no evidence of ototoxicity even on repeated courses of vancomycin therapy. The results suggest that vancomycin therapy when given in appropriate concentrations as a single therapeutic agent is both effective and safe. We believe, however, that vancomycin administered in combination with an aminoglycoside may produce ototoxic effects that may be greatly aggravated, possibly because of synergism.
Ondansetron versus droperidol or placebo to prevent nausea and vomiting after otologic surgery.
Jellish WS. Leonetti JP. Fluder E. Thalji Z.
Department of Anesthesiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.
This study compares the preoperative administration of ondansetron with that of droperidol or saline solution for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in otologic surgery patients. A total of 120 otherwise healthy individuals were randomly assigned to receive either saline solution, ondansetron (4 mg intravenously), or droperidol (25 microg/kg intravenously) before anesthetic induction. Intraoperative and postanesthesia care unit times were recorded along with incidence of nausea, vomiting, pain, nausea and recovery scores, and the administration of rescue antiemetics. Similar assessments were made during the next 24 hours. Demographics were similar, but more males received ondansetron. Anesthetic recovery scores were lower after administration of droperidol than after ondansetron. Incidence of nausea was similar between groups, but severity was greater with placebo and droperidol than with ondansetron. More vomiting occurred with placebo than with ondansetron or droperidol. No intergroup differences in rescue antiemetic administration were noted, however. Twenty-four hours later, more patients receiving placebo had nausea or vomited than patients receiving droperidol or ondansetron. Fewer women in the ondansetron group vomited than in the other two groups. Ondansetron 4 mg intravenously is as effective as droperidol and better than saline solution in preventing nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing otologic surgery. No cost advantage as determined by lower use of rescue antiemetics or shorter postanesthesia care unit times was noted after ondansetron therapy.