Effect of retinoic acid on morphological changes of human pancreatic cancer cells on collagen gels: a possible association with the metastatic potentials.
Jimi S. Shono T. Tanaka M. Kono A. Yamada Y. Shudo K. Kuwano M.
Department of Biochemistry, Kyushu University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pancreatic carcinoma is an invasive and metastasizing type of malignancy. We established six pancreatic cancer cell lines from human pancreatic carcinomas, three highly metastatic lines (KP-1NL, KP-4, and SUIT-2) and three minimally metastatic lines (KP-2, KP-3, and BxPC-3). The three highly metastatic cell lines grew in a fibroblastoid pattern on collagen gels, whereas the three minimally metastatic cell lines grew in an epithelioid pattern under similar conditions. Western blot and Northern blot analyses indicated much higher levels of E-cadherin in the three minimally metastatic cell lines relative to the three highly metastatic cell lines. When the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on the growth patterns of the three highly metastatic lines was examined, we observed a dramatic change from fibroblastoid to epithelioid growth in SUIT-2 cells. Although all six cell lines had comparable levels of retinoic acid receptor-gamma, retinoic acid receptor-beta was expressed only in SUIT-2 cells. Treating SUIT-2 cells with retinoic acid also induced the upregulation of E-cadherin expression. When SUIT-2 cells were treated with retinoic acid receptor-specific agonists, 13-cis-retinoic acid and Am555S, a morphological change from fibroblastoid to epithelioid growth was induced. Retinoic acid receptor-specific antagonists, LE135 and LE540, inhibited retinoic acid-induced change of the growth patterns. The effect of retinoic acid and its derivatives on the growth pattern was discussed in a possible association with their antimetastatic activities of pancreatic cancer.
Characterization of 2-chloro-N10-substituted phenoxazines for reversing multidrug resistance in cancer cells.
Thimmaiah KN. Jayashree BS. Germain GS. Houghton PJ. Horton JK.
Department of Studies in Chemistry, University of Mysore, India.
Twenty-one 2-chloro-N10-substituted phenoxazines have been synthesized and characterized as potential modulators of multidrug resistance (MDR). Many of the compounds, at a concentration of 100 microM, enhanced accumulation of vinblastine (VLB) in drug-resistant KB8-5 cells to a greater extent than the same concentration of verapamil (VRP). However, the effects on VLB accumulation were specific, because these derivatives had little activity in the parental drug-sensitive line KB3-1. The compounds slowed the efflux of VLB from KB8-5 cells, suggesting that the chlorophenoxazines, like VRP, can inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux of VLB from this cell line. Two of the chlorophenoxazine derivatives, and also VRP, were able to stimulate the vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity attributable to P-gp in membranes isolated from MDR1 baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells. This result suggests that these modulators exert their effect by directly interacting with P-gp. Apart from the parent unsubstituted molecule, 2-chlorophenoxazine, there was a good correlation between log10P and the ability of the compounds to enhance VLB accumulation in KB8-5. This suggests that lipophilicity of a modulator is important, but is not the sole determinant of potency. Within this series of compounds, the optimal structural features for MDR modulation include a hydrophobic phenoxazine ring with a -Cl atom in the C-2 position and a tertiary amine group four carbons from the tricyclic ring. Many of the agents at the IC10 concentration completely reversed the 37-fold VLB resistance in KB8-5 cells. The most active agents in KB8-5 were able to partially reverse VLB resistance in an MDR colon carcinoma cell line GC3/c1 and completely reversed the 86-fold VLB resistance in the MDR1-overexpressing breast carcinoma cell line BC19/3. These same agents could only partially sensitize BC19/3 cells to taxol and doxorubicin, suggesting that the chlorophenoxazine derivatives show some specificity for modulating VLB resistance.
Correlates of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in colorectal cancer: positive relationship with nm23 and c-erbB-2 protein expression.
Berney CR. Yang J. Fisher RJ. Russell PJ. Crowe PJ.
Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, University of New South Wales, Randwick, Australia.
We undertook a study to analyze the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) protein in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to compare it with c-erbB-2 (HER2/neu) and nm23 protein expression. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 58 patients with CRC were retrospectively collected. Immunohistochemical staining of u-PA, c-erbB-2, and nm23 was quantitatively evaluated using a color video image analysis (color VIA) technique. No correlation was found between u-PA expression and tumor stage, age, sex, or tumor site. Although there was no evidence from our data that the level of u-PA in the primary tumors could predict risk of liver metastasis or survival duration, CRC showing overexpression of u-PA (above 85 pixels) had a worse prognosis (P = 0.013). There were significant positive correlations among all three u-PA, c-erbB-2, and nm23 proteins (u-PA vs. c-erbB-2, P = 0.003; u-PA vs. nm23, P < 0.001; c-erbB-2 vs. nm23, P = 0.001), suggesting that, in vivo, all proteins interact or are similarly regulated.