Three-step tumor imaging with biotinylated monoclonal antibody, streptavidin and 111In-DTPA-biotin.
Nakamoto Y. Saga T. Sakahara H. Yao Z. Zhang M. Sato N. Zhao S. Nakada H. Yamashina I. Konishi J.
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to test the three-step targeting of tumors in mice using biotinylated antibody, streptavidin and radiolabeled biotin. Nude mice bearing subcutaneous LS180 human colon cancer xenografts were intravenously administered with 200 microg of the biotinylated anti-Tn monoclonal antibody MLS128, and 2 days later they got intravenous injection of 50 microg of streptavidin. They were intravenously injected 1, 4 or 7 days later with 0.5 microg of 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-biotin. The tumor uptake, determined 2 h later, was 1.4, 0.5 and 0.6% injected dose/gram of tissue (ID/g), respectively, and the blood radioactivity was 1.0, 0.2 and 0.2% ID/g, respectively. When the interval between the streptavidin and radiolabeled biotin injections was prolonged from 1 day to 7 days, the tumor-to-blood ratio 2 h after injection of 111In-labeled biotin increased from 1.5 to 4.0. Clear tumor images were obtained as early as 2 h after injection of radiolabeled biotin. In conclusion, these preliminary data suggested that the three-step method using the streptavidin-biotin system would be applicable in an experimental mouse tumor model and provides images of tumors rapidly and clearly after injection of radiolabeled biotin.
Effect of administration route and dose of streptavidin or biotin on the tumor uptake of radioactivity in intraperitoneal tumor with multistep targeting.
Zhang M. Yao Z. Sakahara H. Saga T. Nakamoto Y. Sato N. Zhao S. Nakada H. Yamashina I. Konishi J.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan.
The effect of the administration route and dose of streptavidin or biotin on the biodistribution of radioactivity in multistep targeting was studied in nude mice bearing intraperitoneal (IP) colon cancer xenograft. The multistep targeting included a two-step method using biotinylated antibody and radiolabeled streptavidin and a three-step method with radiolabeled biotin based on the two-step method. A monoclonal antibody, MLS128, which recognizes Tn antigen on mucin, was biotinylated and injected intravenously (i.v.) or i.p. in nude mice bearing human colon cancer LS180 IP xenografts for pretargeting. In the two-step method, i.p.-injected streptavidin showed a higher tumor uptake and tumor-to-nontumor ratios than i.v.-injected streptavidin regardless of administration route of pretargeting. The tumor uptake of radiolabeled streptavidin was increased with a high dose of biotinylated antibody pretargeting, but decreased with an increasing dose of streptavidin. In the three-step targeting, i.p. injection also gave a higher tumor uptake of radiolabeled biotin than i.v. injection. In conclusion, i.p. administration of radiolabeled streptavidin or biotin resulted in more efficient IP tumor targeting with the multistep methods.
Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 9-(4-[18F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG): a new potential imaging agent for viral infection and gene therapy using PET.
Alauddin MM. Conti PS.
PET Imaging Science Center, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033, USA.
Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of 9-(4-[18F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)-guanine ([18F]FHBG) is reported. 9-(4-Hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)-guanine (penciclovir) 4 was converted to 9-[N2, O-bis-(methoxytrityl)-3-(tosylmethybutyl)]guanine 7 by treatment with methoxytrityl chloride followed by tosylation. The tosylate 7 was reacted with either tetrabutylammonium fluoride or KF in the presence of kryptofix 2.2.2. to produce the 4-fluoro-N2-O-bis-(methoxytrityl) derivative 8. Removal of the methoxytrityl groups by acidic hydrolysis produced FHBG 5. Radiolabeled product [18F]FHBG was prepared by fluorination of the tosylate 7 with [18F]KF and kryptofix 2.2.2. The labeled product was isolated by HPLC purification on a reverse-phase C18 column, and eluted at 12 min with 15% acetonitrile in water at a flow rate of 2.25 mL/min. Radiochemical yield was 8.0-22.3% with an average of 12% in 7 runs (corrected for decay). Synthesis time was 90 to 100 min including HPLC purification with radiochemical purity >99%, and average specific activity of 320 mCi/micromol. In vitro studies of the compound in HT-29 colon cancer cells revealed 18.2-fold higher uptake into transduced cells compared to control in 3 h. The agent may be useful for imaging viral infection or transfected cells in gene therapy.
Synthesis and characterisation of [90Y]-Bz-DTPA-oct: a yttrium-90-labelled octreotide analogue for radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours.
Smith-Jones PM. Stolz B. Albert R. Ruser G. Briner U. Macke HR. Bruns C.
Preclinical Research, Sandoz Pharma AG, Basle, Switzerland. email@example.com
An investigation into the in vitro behaviour of two yttrium-90-labelled somatostatin analogues was performed. Further in vivo characterisation was performed with the most promising agent. A new DTPA-octreotide analogue (Bz-DTPA-oct) was synthesised by coupling a bifunctional DTPA chelator to the N-terminal amine of the D-Phe1 of Tyr3-octreotide. This new SRIF analogue and DTPA-octreotide (OctreoScan) were radiolabelled with 90Y prior to serum stability being evaluated. Receptor binding assays were also performed on the two radioligands using rat cortex membranes. The [90Y]-Bz-DTPA-oct was further evaluated in vivo using tumour-bearing rats. The first conjugate (DTPA-octreotide) bound with a high affinity to SRIF receptors and the 90Y complex was relatively stable in human serum (t1/2 3.8 d for 90Y lost to serum proteins). The second conjugate (Bz-DTPA-oct) also exhibited a high binding affinity to SRIF receptors, but it demonstrated an even slower loss of 90Y to serum proteins (t1/2 12.1 d). The in vivo evaluation of the more stable [90Y]-Bz-DTPA-oct showed a very rapid and high accumulation in somatostatin receptor-positive tumours, which after 1 h resulted in tumour/nontumour ratios of 3.8, 21, and 4.9 (for blood, muscle, and liver, respectively). These tumour/nontumour ratios increased, and were by 24 h postinjection 138, 285, and 6.1 (for blood, muscle, and liver). Yttrium-90-labelled Bz-DTPa-oct is rapidly and selectively accumulated in somatostatin receptor-positive tissue. Octadentate Bz-DTPA-oct could be ligand for 90Y radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours and their metastases.
Elimination of free radionuclide by a chelating agent improves tumor-to-nontumor ratios following radioimmunotargeting with antibody labeled with 67Ga.
Ryser JE. Rose K. Jones R. Pelegrin A. Donath A. Egeli R. Smith A. Offord RE.
Division of Nuclear Medicine, Cantonal Hospital and University Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland.
To circumvent radionuclide accumulation in nontarget tissues when employing metallic radionuclides for radioimmunoscintigraphy or radioimmunotherapy, we have investigated the effect of the chelating agent deferroxamine (DFO) on the biodistribution of 67Ga following its administration attached to intact monoclonal antibody MAb35 and its F(ab')2 fragment. Following administration of 67Ga-labeled MAb35, DFO accelerated whole-body elimination of 67Ga and reduced its accumulation in several normal tissues, including liver, spleen and kidney. No reduction in tumor accumulation of 67Ga was observed. Following administration of 67Ga-labeled F(ab')2 fragment, kidney accumulation was higher than with the intact antibody (29% and 4% ID/g, respectively) and blood levels lower (0.69% and 5% ID/g, respectively). Again, no alteration in tumor accumulation of 67Ga was seen following DFO, although liver, kidney and blood levels were reduced and whole-body elimination accelerated.
Lysine-directed conjugation of ethidium homodimer to B72.3 antibody: retention of immunoreactivity but altered tumor targeting.
Harapanhalli RS. Matalka KZ. Jones PL. Mahmood A. Adelstein SJ. Kassis AI.
Department of Radiology (Nuclear Medicine), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Ethidium homodimer (EHD) was conjugated to B72.3 monoclonal antibody using a method whereby 85-90% of the conjugated EHD remains available for DNA intercalation. Antibody was thiopropionylated by reaction with N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate and reduction of pyridyldithio groups with dithiothreitol. EHD was maleimido-functionalized with succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidoethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate and treated with thiopropionylated antibody to obtain a conjugate containing approximately 3.4 EHD per antibody molecule. For biologic studies, 14C-labeled EHD was synthesized by reductive amination and conjugated as above. In vitro the conjugate maintained chemical integrity and immunoreactivity, while in vivo its targeting of LS174T tumors was reduced compared with that of iodinated antibody. A decrease in isoelectric point of the immunoconjugate was also observed.