Clinical impact of GB-C virus in haemodialysis patients.
Kallinowski B. Ahmadi R. Seipp S. Bommer J. Stremmel W.
Department of Internal Medicine IV, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis patients run a high risk of acquiring viral hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) infection. Recently a new parenterally transmittable RNA virus, designated GBV-C, was isolated. METHODS: We therefore screened 266 patients on maintenance dialysis and 358 blood donors as a control group for GBV-C by nested PCR and correlated the data with AST, ALT, duration of dialysis, transfusions, renal transplants and coinfections with HBV and HCV. RESULTS: The prevalence of GBV-C among haemodialysis patients was 7.9%, and 3.6% among blood donors. Neither duration of dialysis nor number of blood transfusions were associated with GBV-C infection, whereas GBV-C-positive patients were significantly more often transplanted than GBV-C-negative individuals. Transaminases of GBV-C-positive individuals remained within normal limits in all haemodialysis patients and normal in all infected blood donors. Coinfections of GBV-C with HBV and HCV were only present in 0.7% and 1% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that GBV-C virus infection is frequent among haemodialysis patients. Transaminases cannot serve as surrogate markers, and parenteral as well as community-acquired infection seems to be possible.
Sclerosing peritonitis: the experience in Australia.
Rigby RJ. Hawley CM.
Department of Nephrology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.
BACKGROUND: Sclerosing peritonitis (SP) is a rare but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Small-bowel obstruction (SBO) due to encapsulation, dense adhesions, or mural fibrous is characteristic, often associated with peritonitis. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, clinical features, effect of duration of dialysis, and other possible aetiological factors in severe SP. METHODS: All dialysis units in Australia were surveyed for possible cases up to 1994. Patients were included if there was either surgical or radiological evidence of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis or SBO with tanned or thickened peritoneum in the absence of other causes of SBO. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were analysed. The duration of continuous PD was mean 52 +/- 30 months, median 48 months and range 8-127 months. Nineteen cases were diagnosed between 1980 and 1989 and 35 between 1990 and 1994, giving mean annual incidences 1.9 and 4.2 per 1000 PD periods respectively. The overall prevalence was 0.7%, which increased progressively with the duration of PD being 1.9, 6.4, 10.8, and 19.4% for patients on dialysis for > 2, 5, 6 and 8 years respectively. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis was diagnosed in 87% of cases, SBO in 92%, and haemoperitoneum in 8%. Peritoneal calcification was present in seven cases, all of which had been on PD > 7 years. Peritonitis was associated with 38% of cases with fungal infection in 7%. Treatment with immunosuppression in five patients appeared to result in a favourable outcome in three. The mortality rate was 56%. CONCLUSION: Severe sclerosing peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis and there is a time dependent increase on CAPD.
Simultaneous peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion and removal in catheter-related infections without interruption of peritoneal dialysis.
Posthuma N. Borgstein PJ. Eijsbouts Q. ter Wee PM.
Department of Nephrology, ICaR-VU, Academic Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Catheter-related infections result in high patient morbidity, the need for temporary haemodialysis, and high costs. These infections are the main cause of limited technique survival in peritoneal dialysis. We introduced a protocol for the simultaneous peritoneoscopic insertion and removal of peritoneal catheters in patients with catheter-related infections. Peritoneal dialysis was continued the day after surgery using low-volume dwells and a dry abdomen during the daytime. The dialysate leukocyte count had to be below 100/mm3 before exchanging catheters, which was performed under antibiotic therapy based on culture sensitivity. The old catheter was removed after the new catheter had been inserted in the opposite abdominal region. CAPD patients were switched to APD for 1 week, which made prolonged hospitalization necessary. Simultaneous catheter insertion and removal was performed 25 times in 22 patients on CCPD and 15 times in 14 patients on CAPD. In CCPD patients, peritoneal dialysis was restarted after 1.0+/-0.1 days in 24 cases. One patient had sufficient residual renal function and discontinued CCPD until day 10. In 10 CAPD patients (11 procedures) APD was started 1.3+/-0.2 days after the procedure with CAPD beginning 7.1+/-0.6 days thereafter. Three CAPD patients preferred haemodialysis and restarted CAPD 10.0+/-2.1 days after surgery. One patient continued CAPD the day after surgery. In addition to minor complications (e.g. position-dependent outflow problems), dialysate leakage occurred in two patients. Two patients developed peritonitis within the first 30 days after surgery, one of which was procedure related. One patient had severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding 2 weeks after the procedure, which was not related to the catheter replacement. Ultimately, in 38 of 40 procedures the patients could successfully continue peritoneal dialysis. We conclude that simultaneous insertion and removal of a peritoneal dialysis catheter without interruption of peritoneal dialysis is a safe procedure in patients with catheter-related infections.
Hepatitis C virus genotypes in patients on renal replacement therapy.
Chan TM. Lau JY. Wu PC. Lai CL. Lok AS. Cheng IK.
Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam.
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is prevalent among patients on renal replacement therapy. Viral genomic differences can contribute to diversities in clinical manifestation. The distribution of HCV genotypes depends on the geographical region and risk factors unique to the patient population. We determined the HCV genotypes in patients on renal replacement therapy in order to define the genotypic profile and examine the relationship between genotype, mode of renal replacement therapy, and the prevalence as well as severity of liver disease. METHODS: HCV genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of the 5'-untranslated region in 21 renal allograft recipients, 29 patients on dialysis, and 26 non-renal failure controls. RESULTS: The most prevalent genotype among patients with renal failure was 1b (78%), followed by 1a (10%) and 6a (8%). 2 renal allograft recipients with 6a infection probably acquired HCV from the same donor. The relative prevalence of HCV genotypes was similar to that of controls. While renal allograft recipients demonstrated more severe liver disease than dialysis patients, the prevalence and severity of chronic hepatitis were similar between patients with 1b and non-1b infection. CONCLUSIONS: Resemblance of genotype distribution in Hong Kong to that of southern China and east Asia suggests common epidemiological evolution of HCV infection in these regions. Our results imply that in addition to viral characteristics, host factors such as the immunosuppressed state play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver disease in these patients.
Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is present in effluents of patients with Gram-negative and Gram-positive CAPD peritonitis.
Schafer K. Schumann RR. Stoteknuel S. Schollmeyer P. Dobos GJ.
University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nephrology, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Bacterial peritonitis is a frequent complication during treatment of end-stage renal failure by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Local host defence mechanisms including the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages are of particular importance in the pathogenesis of infectious complications. LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) are serum factors known to regulate the endotoxin-induced cellular immune response. However, it is still unknown whether LBP and sCD14 are also present in the peritoneal effluent of CAPD patients. METHODS: Using specific immunoassays, we examined the concentration of LBP, sCD14 and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in the dialysis effluents of 31 patients with CAPD-associated peritonitis. Twenty patients without peritonitis served as controls. Intraperitoneal LPS concentrations were determined using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. RESULTS: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide could be detected in 42% of the infected dialysis effluents. In comparison to controls (0.2 +/- 0.05 microg/ml), LBP was significantly elevated in both gram-negative/LPS-positive (1.03 +/- 0.3 microg/ml) and gram-positive infections (0.5 +/- 0.14 microg/ml) (P
Epidemiology of end-stage renal failure in Reunion Island (results from the registry of the Indian Ocean Society of Nephrology).
Albitar S. Bourgeon B. Genin R. Schohn D. Fen-Chong M. Serveaux MO. Chuet C.
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) on long-term dialysis is a substantial problem in Reunion because of the high incidence and prevalence of this disease due to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and systemic arterial hypertension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 1996 the renal study group of the Indian Ocean Society of Nephrology established a regional registry of end-stage renal failure (ESRD) on long-term dialysis. The present report summarizes data obtained from this registry. RESULTS: In 1996, there were 125 patients who were initiated on long-term dialysis, 657 patients on dialysis with a mean age 52 +/- 17 years, and 110 patients with a functioning kidney graft. The incidence rate of ESRD was 188 per million population (p.m.p.) and the prevalence rate of this pathology was 1155 p.m.p. The sex ratio (F/M) was 1.4/1. The two most common causes of ESRD were NIDDM in 33.6% and systemic arterial hypertension in 27.5%. The mean Kt/V value was 1.47 +/- 0.23 and the mortality rate was 8.1% per year. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate high incidence and prevalence rates of ESRD mainly as a result of NIDDM and systemic arterial hypertension.