Cytotoxicity and apoptosis produced by cytochrome P450 2E1 in Hep G2 cells.
Chen Q. Cederbaum AI.
Department of Biochemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA.
Two Hep G2 subclones overexpressing CYP2E1 were established with the use of transfection and limited dilution screening techniques. The Hep G2-CI2E1-43 and -47 (E47) cells (transduced Hep G2 subclones that overexpress CYP2E1) grew at a slower rate than parental Hep G2 cells or control subclones that do not express CYP2E1, but remained fully viable. When GSH synthesis was inhibited by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine, GSH levels rapidly declined in E47 cells but not control cells, which is most likely a reflection of CYP2E1-catalyzed formation of reactive oxygen species. Under these conditions of GSH depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were found only with the E47 cells. Low levels of lipid peroxidation were found in the E47 cells, which became more pronounced after GSH depletion. The antioxidants vitamin E, vitamin C, or trolox prevented the lipid peroxidation as well as the cytotoxicity and apoptosis, as did transfection with plasmid containing antisense CYP2E1 or overexpression of Bcl-2. Levels of ATP were lower in E47 cells because of damage to mitochondrial complex I. When GSH was depleted, oxygen uptake was markedly decreased with all substrates in the E47 extracts. Vitamin E completely prevented the decrease in oxygen uptake. Under conditions of CYP2E1 overexpression, two modes of CYP2E1-dependent toxicity can be observed in Hep G2 cells: a slower growth rate when cellular GSH levels are maintained and a loss of cellular viability when cellular GSH levels are depleted. Elevated lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the CYP2E1-dependent toxicity and apoptosis. This direct toxicity of overexpressed CYP2E1 may reflect the ability of this enzyme to generate reactive oxygen species even in the absence of added metabolic substrate.
Differences among type I, II, and III inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in ligand-binding affinity influence the sensitivity of calcium stores to inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate.
Wojcikiewicz RJ. Luo SG.
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse 13210-2339, USA.
Type I, II, and III inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors are expressed selectively in different cell lines and tissues. We examined whether type I, II, and III InsP3 receptors differ in ligand-binding affinity and whether such differences influence the sensitivity of Ca2+ stores to InsP3. Initially, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, AR4-2J rat pancreatoma cells, and RINm5F rat insulinoma cells were studied because these cells express predominantly (>85%) type I, II, and III receptors, respectively. Immunopurification of receptors from these cell lines and measurement of InsP3 binding revealed that the rank order of affinity for InsP3 was type I > type II > type III (binding sites were half-maximally saturated at 1.5, 2.5, and 22.4 nM InsP3, respectively). Examination of Ca2+ store mobilization in permeabilized cells showed that InsP3 was equipotent in SH-SY5Y and AR4-2J cells but was approximately 5-fold less potent in RINm5F cells. In contrast, Ca2+ uptake and InsP3-independent Ca2+ release were very similar in the three cell types. The binding affinity of InsP3 in permeabilized SH-SY5Y, AR4-2J, and RINm5F cells correlated well with its potency as a Ca2+-mobilizing agent and with binding affinity to immunopurified type I, II, and III receptors. Thus, InsP3 receptor binding affinity seems to influence the potency of InsP3 as a Ca2+-mobilizing agent. Finally, immunopurification of type I, II, and III receptors from rat tissues revealed that the affinity differences seen in receptors purified from cultured cells are paralleled in vivo. In combination, the data from cell lines and rat tissues reveal that type I, II, and III receptors bind InsP3 with Kd values of approximately 1, approximately 2, and approximately 40 nM, respectively, and that the selective expression of a particular receptor type will influence the sensitivity of cellular Ca2+ stores to InsP3.
Protein kinase C activity is required for aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway-mediated signal transduction.
Long WP. Pray-Grant M. Tsai JC. Perdew GH.
Graduate Program in Biochemistry Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Veterinary Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA.
The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR) signal transduction pathway was examined in cell lines stably transfected with pGUDLUC6.1, in which luc+ is solely controlled by four dioxin-responsive elements (DREs). These cell lines, P5A11 and HG40/6, were derived from HeLa and HepG2 cells respectively. Simultaneous treatment of these cells with 2,3,7,8, -tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) enhanced trans-activation of the reporter construct several-fold relative to cells treated with TCDD alone. PKC inhibitors block the PMA effect and hAhR-mediated signal transduction, demonstrating these processes require PKC activity. Examination of other independently generated, HeLa-derived cell lines stably transfected with pGUDLUC6.1 demonstrates the PMA effect in P5A11 cells is not a clonal artifact. Transient transfections indicate the PMA effect is not due to a luciferase message/gene product stabilization mechanism or stimulation of the basal transcription machinery. Examination of cytosolic preparations demonstrates PKC stimulation or inhibition does not alter hAhR and hAhR nuclear translocator protein levels or TCDD-induced down-regulation of hAhR levels. Similarly, examination of nuclear extracts indicated PKC stimulation or inhibition does not alter nuclear AhR levels or hAhR/hAhR nuclear translocator protein heterodimer DRE-binding activity as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These results demonstrate a PKC-mediated event is required for the hAhR to form a functional transcriptional complex that leads to trans-activation and that the DRE is the minimal DNA element required for PMA to enhance AhR-mediated trans-activation.
Hepatic expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein-like proteins maintained in eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats.
Hirohashi T. Suzuki H. Ito K. Ogawa K. Kume K. Shimizu T. Sugiyama Y.
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.
The biliary excretion of several organic anions is mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), which is hereditarily defective in mutant rats such as Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR). In addition, using a kinetic study with isolated canalicular membrane vesicles, we recently suggested the presence of ATP-dependent organic anion transporter(s) other than cMOAT in EHBR [Pharm Res (NY) 12:1746-1755 (1995); J Pharmacol Exp Ther 282:866-872 (1997)]. The aim of this study is to provide a molecular basis for the presence of multiplicity in the biliary excretion of organic anions in rats. Based on the homology with human multidrug resistance-associated protein (hMRP), two cDNA fragments encoding the carboxyl-terminal ATP-binding cassette region were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from EHBR liver. These fragments exhibited approximately 70% amino acid identity with hMRP and rat cMOAT;, therefore, they were designated MRP-like proteins (MLP-1 and MLP-2). The cloned full length cDNA of MLP-1 and -2 from the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat liver and colon cDNA library was composed of 1502 and 1523 amino acids, respectively, had the characteristics of ATP-binding cassette transporters, and exhibited homology with hMRP and rat cMOAT. Northern blot analysis indicated that MLP-1 is expressed predominantly in the liver in both SD rats and EHBR, whereas hepatic expression of MLP-2 was observed only in EHBR. In addition, MLP-2 was markedly induced by ligation of the bile duct in SD rat liver. In both SD rats and EHBR, MLP-2 was expressed predominantly in the duodenum, jejunum, and colon. These findings suggest that MLP-1 and MLP-2 might be novel members of the MRP family responsible for the excretion of organic anions from these epithelial cells, and that MLP-2 is an inducible one.