Follow-up study of hypervariable region sequences of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in an infant with delayed anti-HCV antibody responses.
Katayama Y. Tajiri H. Tada K. Okada S. Tong WY. Ishido S. Hotta H.
Department of Microbiology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan.
An infant born prematurely and infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) one month after birth was followed for 4.5 years. The patient did not produce detectable anti-HCV antibodies until two years after the onset of hepatitis. Before seroconversion, a single clone of HCV, as determined by quasispecies of the hypervariable region (HVR) of the HCV genome, was almost exclusively found in the serum. After seroconversion, however, another distinct lineage of HCV clones replaced it within half a year. As HCV infection persisted further in the presence of anti-HCV antibodies, many derivatives of both sequence lineages emerged to exhibit the typical quasispecies feature of HVR sequences. Neither seroconversion nor the changes in HVR sequences influenced the serum aminotransferase titers.
Epidemiologic study of Shigella sonnei from sequential outbreaks and sporadic cases using different typing techniques.
Matsumoto M. Suzuki Y. Saito M. Ishikawa N. Ohta M.
Department of bacteriology, Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Nagoya, Japan.
We noted that eight outbreaks of Shigella sonnei from an unknown source occurred sequentially in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, between October 1992-June 1993. For comparative purposes we analyzed 53 outbreak-related isolates of Shigella sonnei using different subtyping methods and studied the epidemiology of the outbreaks. It appeared from our study that DNA-based techniques such as plasmid typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were more useful tools for subtyping Shigella sonnei than colicin typing and the antimicrobial susceptibility test. Moreover, according to PFGE analysis, four genetically related isolates of Shigella sonnei were responsible for the eight sequential outbreaks. To further investigate the epidemiology of outbreaks, 58 sporadic isolates of Shigella sonnei from overseas travelers with shigellosis during the same period were also examined. We found that some sporadic isolates from travelers in Asia were genetically related to those of the outbreak-related isolates, indicating that genetically related isolates prevailed in Asia during this period, probably because of the extensive movement of people or food.
Relation between reactivity to the NS-4 region peptides of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and clinical features among patients infected with HCV genotype 1b.
Sakugawa H. Nakasone H. Nakayoshi T. Kawakami Y. Kinjo F. Saito A. Nakayoshi T. Yamashiro A.
First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. email@example.com
Nearly all patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b have reactivity to the core (c22-3) or non-structural (NS)-3 region (c33c) protein in a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-2). However, reactivities to the NS-4 region antigens (5-1-1, c100-3) vary among patients. To clarify whether differences in serological reactivities to the NS-4 antigens are associated with the clinical features or response to interferon (IFN) therapy of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b, we clinically investigated 115 such patients. Positive reactions to 5-1-1 and c100-3 were seen in 75.7 and 79.1%, respectively, of the patients. There were no differences between the patients with and those without antibodies to NS-4 region antigens (5-1-1, c100-3) with regard to age, duration of HCV infection, severity of liver disease and virus load. Fifty-one of the patients were treated with recombinant IFN-alpha, and 17 of the 51 patients showed sustained response to the therapy. The sustained response was more frequently seen in the patients positive for antibodies to both 5-1-1 and c100-3 as compared with those negative for either or both antibodies (41.0% vs. 8.3%, P
Increased resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni: a genetic analysis of gyrA gene mutations in quinolone-resistant clinical isolates.
Ruiz J. Goni P. Marco F. Gallardo F. Mirelis B. Jimenez De Anta T. Vila J.
Departament de Microbiologia, Hospital Clinic, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel, Spain.
Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of enteritis and sometimes it requires antimicrobial therapy. We have studied the evolution of resistance to nine antibiotics from 1990 to 1994 and investigated how frequently gyrA mutations are involved in the acquisition of quinolone resistance. The percentage of chloramphenicol-, clindamycin-, tetracycline- and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid-resistant strains has remained practically unchanged and erythromycin and gentamicin resistance has decreased, whereas the percentage of ampicillin-, nalidixic acid- or ciprofloxacin-resistant strains has almost doubled in the follow-up period, from 56 to 76% for ampicillin- and from 47.5 to 88% for quinolone-resistant strains. This study clearly shows that a mutation in Thr-86 to Ile or Lys is a frequent mechanism associated with the acquisition of a high level of resistance to quinolones in clinical isolates of C. jejuni.