Gastrointestinal symptoms following consumption of olestra or regular triglyceride potato chips: a controlled comparison.
Cheskin LJ. Miday R. Zorich N. Filloon T.
Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md 21224, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
CONTEXT: Olestra, a nonabsorbable, energy-free fat substitute used in snack foods, has been anecdotally reported to cause gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events, although such effects were not expected based on results from randomized trials, in which it was consumed in typical snack patterns. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ad libitum consumption of potato chips made with the fat substitute olestra results in a different level of GI symptoms than regular chips made with triglyceride (TG). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: A suburban Chicago, III, multiplex cinema. SUBJECTS: A total of 1123 volunteers aged 13 to 88 years. INTERVENTION: Subjects were given a beverage and an unlabeled, white 369-g (13-oz) bag of potato chips made with olestra or TG during a free movie screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total and specific GI symptoms reported during a telephone interview conducted from 40 hours to 10 days after ingestion; level of potato chip consumption; and satiety level. RESULTS: Of 563 evaluable subjects in the olestra chip group, 89 (15.8%) reported 1 or more GI symptoms, while 93 (17.6%) of the 529 evaluable subjects in the regular TG chip group did so (difference in symptom frequency between olestra and TG, -1.8; 95% confidence interval, -6.2 to 2.7; P=.47). For specific GI symptoms (eg, gas, diarrhea, abdominal cramping), there were no significant differences between olestra and TG chips. Fewer olestra chips were consumed than TG chips (60 vs 77 g [2.1 vs 2.7 oz]; P
Possible effectiveness of clarithromycin and rifabutin for cryptosporidiosis chemoprophylaxis in HIV disease. HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) Investigators.
Holmberg SD. Moorman AC. Von Bargen JC. Palella FJ. Loveless MO. Ward DJ. Navin TR.
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga 30333, USA.
CONTEXT: Cryptosporidium parvum infection, a common cause of diarrhea in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is difficult to treat or prevent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relative rates of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-infected patients who were either receiving or not receiving chemoprophylaxis or treatment for Mycobacterium avium complex. DESIGN: Analysis of prospectively collected data from HIV-infected patients' visits to their physicians since 1992. SETTING: Ten (8 private, 2 publicly funded) HIV clinics in 9 US cities. PATIENTS: A total of 1019 HIV-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts less than 0.075 x 10(9)/L. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of clinical cryptosporidiosis during treatment with clarithromycin, rifabutin, and azithromycin. RESULTS: Five of the 312 patients reportedly taking clarithromycin developed cryptosporidiosis vs 30 of the 707 patients not taking clarithromycin (relative hazard [RH], 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.10-0.67]; P=.004). Two of the 214 patients taking rifabutin developed cryptosporidiosis vs 33 of the 805 not taking rifabutin (RH, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.04-0.62]; P=.01). Prophylactic efficacy of either drug was 75% or greater. No protective effect was seen in the 54 patients reportedly taking azithromycin (RH, 1.48 [95% CI, 0.44-5.04]; P=.46). CONCLUSIONS: Clarithromycin and rifabutin were highly protective against development of cryptosporidiosis in immune-suppressed HIV-infected persons in this analysis; further study is warranted.