Antibodies to gangliosides and galactocerebroside in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome with preceding Campylobacter jejuni and other identified infections.
Hao Q. Saida T. Kuroki S. Nishimura M. Nukina M. Obayashi H. Saida K.
Department of Neurology and Clinical Research Center, Utano National Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.
The relationship between preceding infections and antibodies to glycolipids was investigated in 205 Japanese patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Serological evidence of recent Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) infection was found in 45% of the patients, compared with 1% in healthy controls. In contrast, recent infection of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in only 5%, 2% and none of the patients, respectively. C. jejuni-associated GBS was more frequent in early spring than in other seasons. All stool specimens positive for C. jejuni isolation were obtained within 10 days after the onset of GBS symptoms. Of 13 C. jejuni isolates from GBS patients, 10 (77%) belonged to Penner serotype 19 (heat-stable, HS-19). Elevated titers of anti-GM1 antibody were found in 8 (80%) of 10 GBS patients whose C. jejuni isolates belonged to HS-19 and in none of those infected with non-HS-19 C. jejuni (P = 0.04), and in 49% of 92 patients with C. jejuni infection and 25% of patients without infection of C. jejuni, CMV, EBV, or M. pneumoniae (P = 0.0007). The frequencies of elevated antibody titers to GD1a, GD1b and GQ1b were also significantly higher in GBS patients associated with C. jejuni than those not associated with C. jejuni, CMV, EBV, and M. pneumoniae. GBS in Japan seems to be associated more frequently with C. jejuni and less frequently with CMV than in Europe and North America.
Close association of IgA anti-ganglioside antibodies with antecedent Campylobacter jejuni infection in Guillain-Barre and Fishers syndromes.
Koga M. Yuki N. Takahashi M. Saito K. Hirata K.
Department of Neurology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan.
IgA has an important function in the gastrointestinal immune system. We investigated IgA anti-ganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Fisher's syndrome (FS) subsequent to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. In previous studies, serological diagnosis of C. jejuni infection was based on the detection of IgG, IgA, and IgM anti-C. jejuni antibodies. Our study, however, showed that the detection of IgG anti-C. jejuni antibody alone was sufficient for the serological diagnosis of antecedent C. jejuni enteritis in GBS and FS, when the cut-off level was defined for results of sera from C. jejuni-isolated patients. Serological evidence of C. jejuni infection was found in 62 (31%) of 201 GBS patients and 12 (18%) of 65 FS patients. IgA anti-GMI antibody was detected in sera from 33 (16%) of the GBS patients, 1 (2%) of the FS patients, and none of the 46 normal control subjects. IgA anti-GM1 antibody titers were significantly higher in the GBS patients with positive C. jejuni serology than in those with negative serology (P < 0.0001) or the FS patients with positive C. jejuni serology (P = 0.007). IgA anti-GQ1b antibody was detected in sera from 18 (28%) of the FS patients, 9 (4%) of the GBS patients, and none of the normal control subjects. FS patients with positive C. jejuni serology had significantly higher titers of IgA anti-GQ1b antibody than those with negative serology (P = 0.01) or the GBS patients with positive C. jejuni serology (P < 0.0001). We conclude that anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b IgA antibodies are closely associated with antecedent C. jejuni enteritis in GBS and FS, respectively.