In situ detection of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) and H19 gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sohda T. Iwata K. Soejima H. Kamimura S. Shijo H. Yun K.
First Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
To assess the relationship between insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) and H19 gene expression at the cellular level, we have examined the distribution of IGF2 and H19 mRNA by means of an situ hybridization in hepatic malignancies consisting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC), and metastatic liver cancer (MLC). In HCC, 15 of 27 tumors (56%) and 11 of 27 tumors (41%) demonstrated increased IGF2 and H19 gene expression, respectively. Of 16 HCCs with increased expression of either IGF2 or H19, 10 tumors coexpressed both transcripts at comparable levels. Moreover, the spatiotemporal distribution and the cellular localization of the two gene transcripts were almost identical, suggesting the presence of a reciprocal relation between IGF2 and H19. In addition, 5 HCCs showed increased IGF2 expression without concomitant H19 expression, whereas 1 HCC showed increased H19 expression without IGF2 transcripts. However, 11 HCCs showed no IGF2 or H19 expression. On the other hand, neither IGF2 transcripts nor H19 transcripts were detected in 2 CCCs or 10 MLCs studied. The data suggest that IGF2 and/or H19 gene expression may be characteristic of some HCCs.
Novel germline mutations of hMSH2 in a patient with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and in a patient with six primary cancers.
Okamura S. Koyama K. Miyoshi Y. Monden M. Takami M.
Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan.
We screened for germline mutations of mismatch repair genes, hMLH1 and hMSH2, in five Japanese families carrying hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and in a patient with multiple primary cancers. Screening the entire coding regions of both genes using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, we found two novel germline mutations in hMSH2. One was a 1-bp insertion in exon 12, detected in a patient who had undergone surgery six times for independent tumors (four primary colorectal carcinomas, a small intestinal carcinoma, and an endometrial cancer). The other, in a second patient, was a missense mutation from CTT to TTT at codon 390 in exon 7 that resulted in substitution of phenylalanine for leucine. This conservative alteration was not found in any of 50 normal controls, but we cannot exclude the possibility that it may represent a rare polymorphism rather than a factor in the disease.