Interleukin 7 transgenic mice develop chronic colitis with decreased interleukin 7 protein accumulation in the colonic mucosa.
Watanabe M. Ueno Y. Yajima T. Okamoto S. Hayashi T. Yamazaki M. Iwao Y. Ishii H. Habu S. Uehira M. Nishimoto H. Ishikawa H. Hata J. Hibi T.
Keio Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160, Japan. email@example.com
We have demonstrated that intestinal epithelial cells produce interleukin 7 (IL-7), and IL-7 serves as a potent regulatory factor for proliferation of intestinal mucosal lymphocytes expressing functional IL-7 receptor. To clarify the mechanism by which locally produced IL-7 regulates the mucosal lymphocytes, we investigated IL-7 transgenic mice. Here we report that transgenic mice expressing murine IL-7 cDNA driver by the SRalpha promoter developed chronic colitis in concert with the expression of SRalpha/IL-7 transgene in the colonic mucosa. IL-7 transgenic but not littermate mice developed chronic colitis at 4-12 wk of age, with histopathological similarity to ulcerative colitis in humans. Southern blot hybridization and competitive PCR demonstrated that the expression of IL-7 messenger RNA was increased in the colonic mucosal lymphocytes but not in the colonic epithelial cells. IL-7 protein accumulation was decreased in the goblet cell-depleted colonic epithelium in the transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical and cytokine production analysis showed that lymphoid infiltrates in the lamina propria were dominated by T helper cell type 1 CD4+ T cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CD4+ intraepithelial T cells were increased, but T cell receptor gamma/delta T cells and CD8alpha/alpha cells were not increased in the area of chronic inflammation. Increased IL-7 receptor expression in mucosal lymphocytes was demonstrated in the transgenic mice. These findings suggest that chronic inflammation in the colonic mucosa may be mediated by dysregulation of colonic epithelial cell-derived IL-7, and this murine model of chronic colitis may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease.
A survey of the humoral immune response of cancer patients to a panel of human tumor antigens.
Stockert E. Jager E. Chen YT. Scanlan MJ. Gout I. Karbach J. Arand M. Knuth A. Old LJ.
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, New York Branch at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Evidence is growing for both humoral and cellular immune recognition of human tumor antigens. Antibodies with specificity for antigens initially recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), e.g., MAGE and tyrosinase, have been detected in melanoma patient sera, and CTLs with specificity for NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis (CT) antigen initially identified by autologous antibody, have recently been identified. To establish a screening system for the humoral response to autoimmunogenic tumor antigens, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using recombinant NY-ESO-1, MAGE-1, MAGE-3, SSX2, Melan-A, and tyrosinase proteins. A survey of sera from 234 cancer patients showed antibodies to NY-ESO-1 in 19 patients, to MAGE-1 in 3, to MAGE-3 in 2, and to SSX2 in 1 patient. No reactivity to these antigens was found in sera from 70 normal individuals. The frequency of NY-ESO-1 antibody was 9.4% in melanoma patients and 12.5% in ovarian cancer patients. Comparison of tumor NY-ESO-1 phenotype and NY-ESO-1 antibody response in 62 stage IV melanoma patients showed that all patients with NY-ESO-1(+) antibody had NY-ESO-1(+) tumors, and no patients with NY-ESO-1(-) tumors had NY-ESO-1 antibody. As the proportion of melanomas expressing NY-ESO-1 is 20-40% and only patients with NY-ESO-1(+) tumors have antibody, this would suggest that a high percentage of patients with NY-ESO-1(+) tumors develop an antibody response to NY-ESO-1.