A case-control study on male hepatocellular carcinoma based on hospital and community controls.
Shibata A. Fukuda K. Nishiyori A. Ogimoto I. Sakata R. Tanikawa K.
Department of Public Health, Kurume University School of Medicine, Japan.
A case control study on male primary hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and hepatitis B or C virus and some potential risk factors, e.g. blood transfusion, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2(ALDH2) genotype and drinking habits, was performed using two controls, i.e. a hospital control(HC) and a community control(CC) in Fukuoka and Saga Prefectures. Cases were obtained from the Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University Hospital. The HCs were obtained from inpatients of two general hospitals in Kurume and the CCs were randomly sampled from the Kurume citizens being matched with age and sex to each case. Based on the HCs, odds ratios(ORs) of developing male HCC were statistically significant due to HBsAg or anti-HCV antibody positive status. Some discrepancies were observed between the two controls, i.e. higher proportions of past histories of diabetes or hypertension, of ALDH2 typical homozygote(ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1)), and of heavy drinkers among the HCs, suggesting slight deviation of the HCs from the CCs in alcohol related aspects. Although ORs regarding accumulated amount of alcohol intake by age 40 based on the HCs were insignificant, two of the three corresponding ORs based on the CCs were statistically significant. Judging from alcohol related aspects between the two controls, the ORs for alcohol based on the HCs seems to be underestimated.
Descriptive epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Japan.
Lin Y. Tamakoshi A. Wakai K. Kawamura T. Aoki R. Kojima M. Ohno Y.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Japan.
This paper aimed to explore descriptive epidemiological features of pancreatic cancer in Japan, by examining secular trends in mortality (1950-1995) and incidence rates (1975-1991), and also to discuss background factors possibly ascribable to the recent variation in mortality and incidence rates. The age-adjusted mortality rate (adjusted by the 1985 model population) has increased by approximately 9-fold in both males (from 1.4 to 12.5 per 100,000 population) and females (from 0.8 to 6.8 per 100,000 population) between 1950 and 1995. But it began to level off in both sexes since 1985. The age-adjusted incidence rate has remained plateau in both sexes, but likely showed a downward trend since 1988 in females. The older age groups showed the most steep increasing gradient in both age-specific mortality and incidence rates in both sexes, whereas a little or no apparent increase was observed in young age groups. Diagnostic improvement and increased cigarette consumption were believed to be the two major factors contributing to the increased mortality and incidence rates in Japan, but further epidemiological studies will be required to clarify possible background factors for the recent levelling-off of the mortality and incidence rates.