Clinical significance of molecular detection of carcinoma cells in lymph nodes and peripheral blood by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in patients with gastrointestinal or breast carcinomas.
Mori M. Mimori K. Ueo H. Tsuji K. Shiraishi T. Barnard GF. Sugimachi K. Akiyoshi T.
Department of Surgery, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Beppu, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the clinical significance of detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA in the dissected lymph nodes and peripheral blood samples of patients with gastrointestinal or breast carcinomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 406 lymph nodes obtained from 65 patients were analyzed by both histologic and molecular examination of CEA-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Peripheral blood samples from another 102 patients were also analyzed by CEA-specific RT-PCR. Patients were followed up prospectively for 24 +/- 12 months. RESULTS: Of 406 lymph nodes, the positive detection rate increased from 20% by histologic examination to 60% by RT-PCR examination. The recurrence rate was 40% in 15 cases showing positive results in both examinations, 14% in 29 cases showing histologically negative but RT-PCR positive results, and none in 21 cases showing negative results in both examinations. The positive detection rate for CEA mRNA in peripheral blood samples increased with advancing stage of disease. With respect to 62 curatively operated cases, CEA mRNA was detected in 12 cases. Four of these 12 cases developed metastatic disease after surgery whereas none of 50 cases negative by RT-PCR developed metastasis. CONCLUSION: It has been shown that RT-PCR is a powerful tool to detect CEA mRNA in the lymph nodes or the peripheral blood. This is potentially very useful to determine high-risk patients for metastasis. Serial analysis is warranted to assess the long-term significance of this method and its therapeutic and prognostic implications.
Phase I study of docetaxel with concomitant thoracic radiation therapy.
Mauer AM. Masters GA. Haraf DJ. Hoffman PC. Watson SM. Golomb HM. Vokes EE.
University of Chicago Department of Medicine, IL 60637, USA.
PURPOSE: The taxanes have demonstrated activity as radiation sensitizers in preclinical studies. This study was designed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), optimal schedule, and toxicities of docetaxel in combination with concomitant standard chest radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with advanced non-small-cell lung or esophageal cancer enrolled in this phase I study to evaluate escalating docetaxel doses at three schedules. Docetaxel was administered as two 21-day cycles at doses of 40, 60, and 75 mg/m2 per cycle. Docetaxel administration schedules were as follows: schedule A, once every 3 weeks; schedule B, 2 of 3 weeks; or schedule C, weekly. Six weeks of concomitant standard chest radiotherapy in 1.8- to 2.0-Gy daily fractions was delivered to 60 Gy total. RESULTS: Dose-limiting esophagitis and neutropenia were encountered with schedules A and B at docetaxel doses of 60 mg/m2 per cycle. The docetaxel MTD for schedules A and B was 40 mg/m2 per cycle. Dose-limiting esophagitis was also observed with schedule C; however, there was no neutropenia. For schedule C, we identified the MTD as 60 mg/m2 per cycle (20 mg/m2/wk). Other toxicities encountered included thrombocytopenia, hypersensitivity reaction, and pulmonary infiltrates (fatal in two patients). Late toxicity of esophageal stricture occurred in five patients. CONCLUSION: Esophagitis and neutropenia are the dose-limiting toxicities of docetaxel administered with concomitant chest radiotherapy. Weekly administration of docetaxel allows for the highest total docetaxel dose during chest radiotherapy. We identified the recommended phase II docetaxel dose as 20 mg/m2 administered weekly with concomitant chest radiotherapy for 6 weeks.
Patient-reported symptoms after primary therapy for early prostate cancer: results of a prospective cohort study.
Talcott JA. Rieker P. Clark JA. Propert KJ. Weeks JC. Beard CJ. Wishnow KI. Kaplan I. Loughlin KR. Richie JP. Kantoff PW.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To assess complications of therapy for early (nonmetastatic) prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of a cohort of 279 men who sought treatment advice and completed required pretreatment forms. The measures were self-reported patient symptoms and other measures of quality of life before therapy and at 3 and 12 months afterward. RESULTS: Bowel and bladder symptoms were uncommon pretreatment. Patients frequently reported irritative bowel and bladder symptoms at 3 months after radiotherapy, although these subsided somewhat at 12 months. Substantial ("a lot") urinary incontinence and wearing of absorptive pads were reported by 11% and 35% at 12 months after surgery and varied little by age. Incontinence occurred after radiotherapy infrequently, and only in men more than 65 years old. Inadequate erections, present in one third of men pretreatment, were nearly universal at 3 months after surgery, although some improvement, primarily in men under 65 years of age, was evident at 12 months. Sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy increased less but continually through 12 months, suggesting that observed treatment-related differences would decline with further follow-up. CONCLUSION: External-beam radiotherapy of early prostate cancer is followed by bowel and bladder irritability, by increasingly severe sexual dysfunction and, in men aged more than 65 years, occasional urinary incontinence. Greater sexual dysfunction and urinary incontinence occur in the year following radical prostatectomy. These postsurgical complication rates from patient questionnaires are greater than have been reported in other treatment series and confirm the results of two retrospective studies of patient-reported complications.
Prospectively randomized trial of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk colon cancer.
O'Connell MJ. Laurie JA. Kahn M. Fitzgibbons RJ Jr. Erlichman C. Shepherd L. Moertel CG. Kocha WI. Pazdur R. Wieand HS. Rubin J. Vukov AM. Donohue JH. Krook JE. Figueredo A.
Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: This study had two major goals: (1) to assess the effectiveness of a regimen of fluorouracil (5-FU) plus levamisole plus leucovorin as postoperative surgical adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk colon cancer, and (2) to evaluate 6 months versus 12 months of chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with poor-prognosis stage II or III colon cancer were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with either intensive-course 5-FU and leucovorin combined with levamisole, or a standard regimen of 5-FU plus levamisole. Patients were also randomly assigned to receive either 12 months or 6 months of chemotherapy, which resulted in four treatment groups. RESULTS: Eight hundred ninety-one of 915 patients entered (97.4%) were eligible. The median follow-up duration is 5.1 years for patients still alive. There was a difference among the four treatment groups with respect to patient survival, and a significant duration-by-regimen interaction was observed. Specifically, standard 5-FU plus levamisole was inferior to 5-FU plus leucovorin plus levamisole when treatment was given for 6 months (5-year survival rate, 60% v 70%; P < .01). CONCLUSION: There was no significant improvement in patient survival when chemotherapy was given for 12 months compared with 6 months. When chemotherapy was given for 6 months, standard 5-FU plus levamisole was associated with inferior patient survival compared with intensive-course 5-FU plus leucovorin plus levamisole. These data suggest that 5-FU plus levamisole for 6 months should not be used in clinical practice, whereas 6 months of treatment with 5-FU plus leucovorin plus levamisole is effective.
Efficacy of intravenous continuous infusion of fluorouracil compared with bolus administration in advanced colorectal cancer. Meta-analysis Group In Cancer.
PURPOSE: The administration of fluorouracil (5-FU) by continuous intravenous infusion (CI) is an alternative to the bolus administration of 5-FU in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Although more than 1,200 patients have been enrolled onto randomized trials that compared these two treatment modalities, there is still no definitive evidence of an advantage of 5-FU CI, and the magnitude of this advantage, if any, is also controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to assess this benefit in terms of tumor response and survival, and to compare the toxicity profiles of these two modalities of administration of 5-FU. DESIGN: Individual data of 1,219 patients included in six randomized trials served as the basis for this meta-analysis, which was conducted by an independent secretariat in close collaboration with the investigators. RESULTS: Tumor response rate was significantly higher in patients assigned to 5-FU CI than in patients assigned to 5-FU bolus (22% v 14%; overall response odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.41 to 0.75; P = .0002). Overall survival was also significantly higher in patients assigned to 5-FU CI (overall hazards ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99; P = .04), although the median survival times were close. Multivariate analyses showed that randomized treatment and performance status were the only two significant predictors of tumor response, whereas the same plus primary tumor site were independent significant predictors of survival (patients with rectal cancer did somewhat better). Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity was more frequent in patients assigned to 5-FU bolus (31% v 4%; P < 10(-16)), whereas hand-foot syndrome was more frequent in the 5-FU CI group (34% v 13%; P < 10(-7)). CONCLUSION: 5-FU CI is superior to 5-FU bolus in terms of tumor response and achieves a slight increase of overall survival. The hematologic toxicity is much less important in patients who receive 5-FU CI, but hand-foot syndrome is frequent in this group of patients.
ERCC1 mRNA levels complement thymidylate synthase mRNA levels in predicting response and survival for gastric cancer patients receiving combination cisplatin and fluorouracil chemotherapy.
Metzger R. Leichman CG. Danenberg KD. Danenberg PV. Lenz HJ. Hayashi K. Groshen S. Salonga D. Cohen H. Laine L. Crookes P. Silberman H. Baranda J. Konda B. Leichman L.
University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that relative thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA levels in primary gastric adenocarcinomas treated with fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin are inversely associated with response and survival. This is a presumed function of TS as a target for 5-FU activity. We now test the hypotheses that the relative mRNA level of the excision repair cross-complementing (ERCC1) gene is inversely associated with response and survival as an independent function of cisplatin efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients had intact, untreated, primary gastric adenocarcinoma cancer and were evaluated for eligibility on a preoperative cisplatin infusion-5-FU protocol. cDNA, derived from primary gastric tumors before chemotherapy, was used to determine ERCC1 mRNA levels, expressed as the ratio of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product of the ERCC1 gene and the beta-actin gene. RESULTS: The median ERCC1 mRNA level from 38 primary gastric cancers (33 assessable for response) was 5.8 x 10(-3) (range, 1.8 x 10(-3) to 19.5 x 10(-3)). Of 17 responding patients, 13 (76%) were less than or equal to 5.8 x 10(-3) and four were greater than 5.8 x 10(-3) (P = .003). The median survival for patients with ERCC1 mRNA levels less than or equal to 5.8 x 10(-3) has not been reached, whereas for those greater than 5.8 x 10(-3) it was 5.4 months (P = .034). The median TS mRNA level, 3.7 x 10(-3) (range, 0.9 to 18.9) also segregated responsive versus resistant tumors (P = .024). With both ERCC1 and TS mRNA levels below their medians, 11 of 13 patients (85%) responded; with both ERCC1 and TS mRNA levels above their medians, two of 10 patients (20%) responded (P = .003). CONCLUSION: Considered separately, either ERCC1 or TS mRNA levels in a primary gastric adenocarcinoma has a statistically significant relationship to response. ERCC1 mRNA levels have a statistically significant association with survival; in this cohort TS mRNA levels did not reach statistically significant association with survival as in our previous publication. Whether these molecular parameters are independent of each other as predictors of outcome remains to be determined.
Phase II trial of preoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy for patients with localized, resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study.
Hoffman JP. Lipsitz S. Pisansky T. Weese JL. Solin L. Benson AB 3rd.
Fox Chase Cancer Center, and Graduate Hospital, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
PURPOSE: A prospective, multiinstitutional trial was initiated in 1991 to examine the tolerance to and efficacy of a program of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) and surgical resection for patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients were assessable for analysis, with a median follow-up of 52 months for survivors. Radiation therapy (RT) totaling 5,040 cGy in 180 cGy fractions with mitomycin 10 mg/m2 day 2 and fluorouracil (5-FU) 1,000 mg/m2/d continuous infusion days 2 through 5 and 29 through 32 were given as preoperative adjuvant therapy. Twelve patients did not proceed to surgery (one death, one toxicity, three local progression, six distant metastases, one intercurrent illness), whereas 41 patients underwent surgery. Of these, 17 patients did not have resection (11, hepatic and/or peritoneal metastases and six local extension that precluded resection). Twenty-four patients had tumor resection (19 Whipple, four total pancreatectomy, one distal pancreatectomy). RESULTS: Treatment toxicity was primarily hematologic, although a comparable number suffered biliary tract complications, either from obstruction or cholangitis as a result of an occluded stent or the primary tumor. There was one postoperative death. Median survival for the entire group and for the 24 patients with resection was 9.7 and 15.7 months. This survival rate reflected the advanced state of most resected cancers (positive peritoneal cytology, three patients; margins within 2 mm, 13 patients; involved lymph nodes, four patients; and need for superior mesenteric vein (SMV) resection, four patients). Tumor progression was most frequent at metastatic sites. CONCLUSION: This preoperative CTRT protocol was feasible and safe in a cooperative group setting. Entry of patients with advanced tumors probably accounted for the suboptimal resectability and survival results.
Influence of surgery on metachronous distant metastases and survival in rectal cancer.
Kockerling F. Reymond MA. Altendorf-Hofmann A. Dworak O. Hohenberger W.
Department of Surgery, and Tumor Center, University of Erlangen, Germany. email@example.com
PURPOSE: Total mesorectal excision (TME) and other technical surgical factors reduce local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Scientific evidence of the positive effect of optimal surgery on survival is locking. Whether a reduction in the incidence of distant metastases can be achieved with optimal surgery is uncertain. We examine the effects of the quality of surgery, as reflected by local recurrence rate, on survival and the incidence of initial distant metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1974 and 1991, 1,581 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection (RO) for rectal carcinoma were monitored for recurrence and survival. TME was introduced in 1985. No patient received adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was greater than 13 years. RESULTS: The local recurrence rate decreased from 39.4% to 9.8% during the study period (P < .0001). The observed 5-year survival rate improved from 50% to 71% (P < .0001). Three hundred six patients with local recurrence had a significantly lower observed 5-year survival rate (P < .0001). A total of 1,285 patients had no local recurrence, but 275 of them developed distant metastases (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] stage I, 8%; stage II, 16%; stage III, 40%). Better-quality surgery had no effect on the incidence of initial distant metastases, which remained constant (P = .44). CONCLUSION: Quality of surgery is an independent prognostic factor for survival in rectal cancer, but has no influence on initial occurrence of distant metastases. Local recurrence cannot be considered an outcome criterion of adjuvant treatment without consideration of the surgeon as a risk factor.
Evaluation of antiandrogen therapy in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: results of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer multicentric double-blind trial.
Grimaldi C. Bleiberg H. Gay F. Messner M. Rougier P. Kok TC. Cirera L. Cervantes A. De Greve J. Paillot B. Buset M. Nitti D. Sahmoud T. Duez N. Wils J.
Hopital de Cimiez, Nice, France.
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of antiandrogen therapy on overall survival and response in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 244 patients with unresectable HCC were included in this multicentric double-blind trial. According to a two-by-two factorial design, patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments: pure antiandrogen plus placebo (A+P group, 60 patients); luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist plus placebo (LHRH+P group, 62 patients); pure antiandrogen plus LHRH agonist (A+LHRH group, 62 patients); or placebo plus placebo (P+P group, 60 patients). Pure antiandrogen consisted of Anandron (Roussel-Uclaf Laboratory, Romainville, France) administered orally (300 mg daily for 1 month, then 150 mg daily). LHRH consisted of goseriline acetate (3.6 mg) or triptoreline (3.75 mg) administered monthly by subcutaneous injection. Treatment was given until death. Response was evaluated every 8 weeks according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. RESULTS: Six patients were considered ineligible. One patient had a complete response (A+P arm) and three had a partial response (two in the LHRH+P arm and one in the A+LHRH arm). An overall log-rank test did not demonstrate any significant difference in survival among the four arms. Taking the factorial design into account, comparison of survival showed no significant difference between Anandron-containing regimens and others, or between LHRH-containing regimens and others. No serious side effects occurred for any regimen. CONCLUSION: This controlled study shows clearly the lack of efficacy of androgen treatment in unresectable HCC.
Effective biomodulation by leucovorin of high-dose infusion fluorouracil given as a weekly 24-hour infusion: results of a randomized trial in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
Kohne CH. Schoffski P. Wilke H. Kaufer C. Andreesen R. Ohl U. Klaasen U. Westerhausen M. Hiddemann W. Schott G. Harstick A. Bade J. Horster A. Schubert U. Hecker H. Dorken B. Schmoll HJ.
Department of Haematology/Oncology and Tumor Immunology, Robert-Rossle-Klinik, Berlin, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: To determine whether high-dose infusional fluorouracil (FU) is effectively modulated by leucovorin (LV), interferon (IFN) alpha-2b, or both when given to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 236) with progressive, measurable disease were randomized to three groups and received FU 2,600 mg/m2 as a 24-hour continuous infusion (CI) weekly for 6 weeks with 2 weeks rest (FU24h) and LV 500 mg/m2 as a 2-hour infusion before FU or IFN 3 x 10(6) U subcutaneously 3 times weekly or both. Treatment continued until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity was observed. Pairs of treatment arms were analyzed sequentially to detect equivalence or a 25% difference in response rates. RESULTS: The rate of objective remission in patients who received FU24h/LV (44%; 40 of 91) was significantly higher than in patients who received FU24h/IFN (18%; 16 of 90; P < .05). The response rates of patients who received FU24h/LV versus FU24h/LV/IFN (27%; 13 of 49) were statistically equivalent. Significant differences were observed for time to tumor progression (TTP) (FU24h/LV, 7.1 months; FU24h/IFN, 3.9 months; FU24h/LV/IFN, 6.3 months; global P value < .009) and survival (16.6 months, 12.7 months, 19.6 months, respectively; global P value < .04). Unpredictable and life-threatening toxicity in the FU24h/LV/IFN arm required dose reduction of FU to 2,000 mg/m2/day and early stoppage of this arm. Toxicity was manageable in patients who received both FU24h/LV (grade 3 to 4 diarrhea, 21%) and FU24h/IFN (grade 3 to 4 diarrhea, 15%). CONCLUSION: Response rate, TTP, and overall survival were superior for LV-containing regimens compared with IFN modulation alone. The addition of IFN to high-dose infusional FU plus LV offers no advantage and may increase toxicity. The regimen of high-dose infusional FU24h/LV warrants further evaluation in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Confirmation that chromosome 18q allelic loss in colon cancer is a prognostic indicator.
Ogunbiyi OA. Goodfellow PJ. Herfarth K. Gagliardi G. Swanson PE. Birnbaum EH. Read TE. Fleshman JW. Kodner IJ. Moley JF.
Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.
PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest that allelic loss of sequences from the long arm of chromosome 18 may be a useful prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to confirm whether 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is of prognostic value in patients with colon cancer. METHODS: Genomic DNA was prepared from archival tumor and corresponding normal tissue specimens from 151 patients who had undergone potentially curative surgery for adenocarcinoma of the colon. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess allelic loss of five chromosome 18q microsatellite markers in the tumors. The relationship between allelic loss and disease-free and disease-specific survival was investigated. RESULTS: LOH was detected in 67 of 126 tumors. Chromosome 18q allelic loss was a negative prognostic indicator of both disease-free (relative risk [RR], 1.65; P = .01) and disease-specific survival (RR, 2.0; P = .003). 18q loss was also associated with significantly reduced disease-free and disease-specific survival in patients with stage II (P = .05 and P = .0156) and III (P = .038 and P = .032) disease. CONCLUSION: Chromosome 18q allelic loss is a prognostic marker in colorectal cancers. Chromosome 18 LOH studies may be useful in identifying patients with stage II disease who are at high risk for recurrence, and as such might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
Epoetin beta in the treatment of anemia in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.
Glimelius B. Linne T. Hoffman K. Larsson L. Svensson JH. Nasman P. Svensson B. Helmers C.
Department of Oncology, Uppsala, Sweden. Bengt.Glimelius@onkologi.uu.se
PURPOSE: The possibility that epoetin beta (EPO) could increase hemoglobin (B-Hb) levels and improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancers was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with gastric, pancreatic, biliary, or colorectal cancers and subnormal B-Hb levels were included in a randomized study to test low-dose EPO (2,000 U subcutaneously thrice weekly [2,000 group]) against a higher dose (10,000 U times three [10,000 group]). Eighty-four patients were treated with chemotherapy. QoL was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 instrument. RESULTS: At baseline, mean B-Hb was 108 g/L with no difference between the groups. In the 10,000 group, an increase in B-Hb (>10 g/L) was seen in 30 (73%) patients treated with chemotherapy, after a median of 4 weeks, whereas a corresponding increase in the 2,000 group was seen in 15 (30%) patients after a median of 10 weeks (P < .001). A difference in the proportion of responders (five of eight v one of eight) was also seen in the group of patients not treated with chemotherapy. The proportion of responders was independent of baseline endogenous serum EPO level or observed/predicted log10 serum (S)-EPO levels. Patients who demonstrated improved B-Hb levels also showed improvements in QoL parameters. Tumor response was usually also associated with QoL improvements. CONCLUSION: Treatment with EPO at a dose of 10,000 U thrice weekly can rapidly and safely increase B-Hb levels in a high proportion of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancers. QoL is influenced by the B-Hb increase, but also by the course of the underlying malignancy. It is therefore difficult to define clearly the clinical relevance of the B-Hb increase as such.
Comparison of single-dose oral granisetron versus intravenous ondansetron in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized parallel study.
Perez EA. Hesketh P. Sandbach J. Reeves J. Chawla S. Markman M. Hainsworth J. Bushnell W. Friedman C.
Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: The antiemetic effectiveness and safety of single-dose oral granisetron were compared with intravenous (I.V.) ondansetron in chemotherapy-naive patients who received moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group study, patients naive to emetogenic chemotherapy (N = 1,085) who were scheduled to receive cyclophosphamide- (500 to 1,200 mg/m2) or carboplatin (> or = 300 mg/m2) based chemotherapy, were randomized to receive either oral granisetron (n = 542) or I.V. ondansetron (n = 543). Efficacy assessments included the proportion of patients in each treatment group with total control over the 24 and 48 hours following chemotherapy initiation, as well as incidence and severity of nausea and emesis and use of antiemetic rescue medication. Prophylactic corticosteroids were allowed. Safety assessment was based on patients' reports of adverse experiences. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of patients received prophylactic corticosteroids. Single-dose oral granisetron (2 mg) and I.V. ondansetron (32 mg) resulted in equivalent levels of total emetic control during the first 48 hours after chemotherapy. The proportion of nausea- and emesis-free patients at 24 and 48 hours were also approximately equivalent. The most commonly reported adverse experiences were headache, asthenia, and constipation. More patients who received ondonsetron than granisetron reported dizziness (9.6% v 5.4%, respectively; P = .011) and abnormal vision (4.2% v 0.6%, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSION: A single oral dose of granisetron (2 mg) resulted in equivalent levels of antiemetic protection as I.V. ondansetron (32 mg). Both agents were well tolerated, although more dizziness and abnormal vision were reported with ondansetron. Because the two antiemetic regimens exhibited equivalent efficacies, additional factors such as convenience and cost of therapy should be considered.
Assuring the optimal use of serotonin antagonist antiemetics: the process for development and implementation of institutional antiemetic guidelines at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Nolte MJ. Berkery R. Pizzo B. Baltzer L. Grossano D. Lucarelli CD. Kris MG.
Department of Nursing, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.
PURPOSE: The need to foster the appropriate and cost-effective use of serotonin-antagonist antiemetic drugs spurred the creation of guidelines. The process by which institution-wide guidelines at Sloan-Kettering were developed, implemented, assessed, and modified is described. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group working with disease-specific management teams assigned the emetic potential of chemotherapy programs to one of five categories. Antiemetic regimens, including a specified dose and schedule of a serotonin-antagonist and dexamethasone, were assigned to each emetic category. The information was collated by disease site and chemotherapy program into hospital-wide antiemetic regimen recommendations. Quality assessment was conducted initially and repeated each time the guidelines were modified. RESULTS: Patient surveys demonstrated a high level of satisfaction with emetic control, which was similar to reported results. Data from the latest survey showed zero emetic episodes in 93% and 87% of participants given moderate and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, respectively. Compliance with the guidelines, initially in 73%, has been improved using a standardized chemotherapy order "check box" labeled, "Antiemetics as per Guidelines." Antiemetic drug expenditures decreased from a projected $2.8 million to $1.3 million annually. CONCLUSION: The guidelines became an educational tool that ensured the delivery of optimal antiemetic therapy chosen by professionals with the greatest knowledge of both the particular chemotherapy regimen and cancer site. Implementation of the guidelines resulted in substantial savings while treating more patients. The guidelines were easily modified as new chemotherapeutic agents and antiemetic drugs became available.
1997 update of recommendations for the use of tumor markers in breast and colorectal cancer. Adopted on November 7, 1997 by the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to update the 1996 clinical practice guidelines for the use of tumor marker tests in the prevention, screening, treatment, and surveillance of breast and colorectal cancers. These guidelines are intended for use in the care of patients outside of clinical trials. OPTIONS: Six tumor markers for colorectal cancer and eight for breast cancer were considered. They could be recommended or not for routine use or for special circumstances. In addition to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA) 15-3, CA 27.29 also was considered in regard to circulatory tumor markers for breast cancer. OUTCOMES: In general, the significant health outcomes identified for use in making clinical practice guidelines (overall survival, disease-free survival, quality of life, lesser toxicity, and cost effectiveness) were used. EVIDENCE: A computerized literature search from 1994 to July 1997 was performed. VALUES: The same values for Use, Utility, and Levels of Evidence were used by the Committee. BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: The same benefit, harms, and costs were used. RECOMMENDATION: No changes in any guidelines were recommended (see text). VALIDATION: External review by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Health Services Research Committee and by ASCO Board of Directors. SPONSOR: American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Allogeneic peripheral-blood progenitor-cell transplantation for poor-risk patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Ueno NT. Rondon G. Mirza NQ. Geisler DK. Anderlini P. Giralt SA. Andersson BS. Claxton DF. Gajewski JL. Khouri IF. Korbling M. Mehra RC. Przepiorka D. Rahman Z. Samuels BI. van Besien K. Hortobagyi GN. Champlin RE.
Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of allogeneic peripheral-blood progenitor-cell (PBPC) transplantation and to assess graft-versus-tumor effects in patients with metastatic breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients with metastatic breast cancer that involved the liver or bone marrow were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and allogeneic PBPC transplantation. The median age was 42 years (range, 29 to 55). The median number of metastatic sites was three (range, one to five). The conditioning regimen was cyclophosphamide (6,000 mg/m2), carmustine (BCNU; 450 mg/m2), and thiotepa (720 mg/m2) (CBT regimen). Patients received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis using cyclosporine- or tacrolimus-based regimens. RESULTS: All patients had engraftment and hematologic recovery. Three patients developed grade > or = 2 acute GVHD and four patients had chronic GVHD. After transplantation, one patient was in complete remission (CR), five achieved a partial remission (PR), and four had stable disease (SD). In two patients, metastatic liver lesions regressed in association with skin GVHD after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapies. The median follow-up time was 408 days (range, 53 to 605). The median progression-free survival duration was 238 days (range, 53 to 510). CONCLUSION: We conclude that allogeneic PBPC transplantation is a feasible procedure for patients with poor-risk metastatic breast cancer. The regression of tumor associated with GVHD provides suggestive clinical evidence that graft-versus-tumor effects may occur against breast cancer. Compared with autologous transplantation, allogeneic PBPC transplantation is associated with the additional risks of GVHD and related infections. Allogeneic transplantation should only be performed in the context of clinical trials and its ultimate role requires demonstration of improved progression-free survival.
Randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with mitomycin plus ftorafur versus mitomycin alone in resected locally advanced gastric cancer.
Grau JJ. Estape J. Fuster J. Filella X. Visa J. Teres J. Soler G. Albiol S. Garcia-Valdecasas JC. Grande L. Bombi J. Bordas J. Alcobendas F.
University of Barcelona, Hospital Clinic, Villarroel, Spain.
PURPOSE: We performed a clinical trial to determine whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with two drugs versus one drug could prolong survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1985 to 1996, 85 patients with completely resected locally advanced gastric cancer were enrolled. The subjects were randomized into two treatment groups, as follows: mitomycin (MMC) 10 to 20 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1 every 6 weeks plus ftorafur (FT) 500 mg/m2/d for 36 consecutive days; or MMC alone, 10 to 20 mg/m2 i.v. every 6 weeks. All courses were repeated four times. RESULTS: After a median follow-up duration of 62 months, the overall 5-year survival rates were 67% for the MMC-FT group versus 44% for the MMC group (P = .04). Subgroup analysis to compare survival curves using the method of Mantel-Cox showed survival rates significantly in favor of the MMC-FT group in the subsets of patients with node-negative disease (P = .01) and those whose disease was stage IB or II (P = .008). CONCLUSION: Significantly better survival results were observed for MMC-FT versus MMC alone. Subset analysis suggest a strong benefit in patients with node-negative and early-stage resected gastric cancer.
Bone metastases in patients with gastrinomas: a prospective study of bone scanning, somatostatin receptor scanning, and magnetic resonance image in their detection, frequency, location, and effect of their detection on management.
Gibril F. Doppman JL. Reynolds JC. Chen CC. Sutliff VE. Yu F. Serrano J. Venzon DJ. Jensen RT.
Digestive Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1804, USA.
PURPOSE: To determine whether bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is best for identifying bone metastases in patients with gastrinomas, as well as their frequency and location, whether their detection affects management, and what patient subgroups should be examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen patients with gastrinoma were prospectively studied. Patients were examined yearly and those with liver metastases were reexamined every 3 months. Based on clinical history, histology, growth pattern, and development of new bone lesions, possible bone metastases were classified as to whether they were or were not bone metastases. Imaging results were correlated at different times in the disease course and with disease extent. RESULTS: Bone scan was positive in 52 patients, MRI in seven, and SRS in six. Eight patients (7%) were determined to have bone metastases and MRI was correctly positive in seven, SRS in six, and bone scan in five. SRS or MRI was positive in all patients with bone metastases. Bone scan had significantly lower specificity and sensitivity, and a higher rate (P < .02) of false-negative results than MRI or SRS. Bone metastases occurred in 31% of patients with liver metastases and 0% with only lymph node metastases. The initial bone metastases were in the spine or sacrum (75%) followed in descending order by the pelvis or sacroiliac joints (38%), scapula or shoulder, and ribs. In all cases, detection of bone metastases changed the management. CONCLUSION: SRS and MRI, because of high sensitivity and specificity, are recommended over bone scanning to screen for bone metastases in patients with gastrinomas. However, because bone metastases can occur initially outside the axial skeleton, SRS is the recommended initial localization method of choice. Bone metastases occur in 7% of all patients and 31% of patients with liver metastases, only occur in patients with liver metastases, are usually in the axial skeleton initially, and their detection changes management in all cases. Patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with liver metastases should undergo SRS every 6 months to 1 year to detect bone metastases.
Phase I and pharmacologic study of 9-aminocamptothecin colloidal dispersion formulation given as a 24-hour continuous infusion weekly times four every 5 weeks.
Siu LL. Oza AM. Eisenhauer EA. Firby PS. Thiessen JJ. Michael M. Wainman N. Manzo J. Feld R. Goldberg RA. Moore MJ.
Department of Medicine, Princess Margaret Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
PURPOSE: 9-Aminocamptothecin (9-AC) is a water-insoluble camptothecin (CMP) derivative that inhibits normal topoisomerase I function. Schedule dependency was noted, with the greatest activity seen in the setting of greater than 24 hours exposure to lactone (L) concentrations > or = 10 nmol/L. In this phase I study, 9-AC was given by a continuous intravenous infusion over 24 hours once weekly times four every 5 weeks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients, of whom 16 had fluorouracil-refractory colorectal cancer (CRC), entered the study. Dose levels were 0.7 mg/m2 (n = 4), 1.4 mg/m2 (n = 3), 1.9 mg/m2 (n = 6), and 1.65 mg/m2 (n = 7). Detailed pharmacokinetic (PK) measurements of 9-AC L and carboxylate (C) were performed on day 1 of cycles 1 and 2. RESULTS: At 1.9 mg/m2, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was reached, with three of six patients having grade 4 neutropenia. At 1.65 mg/m2, one of seven patients had grade 4 neutropenia. Nonhematologic toxicity was modest, with diarrhea > or = grade 3 in two patients and lethargy > or = grade 3 in eight. PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) analyses showed marked interpatient variability. Steady-state concentrations (Css) of 9-AC L > or = 10 nmol/L (3.6 microg/L) were seen in five of seven patients at 1.65 mg/m2 and five of six patients at 1.9 mg/m2. Using the sigmoidal maximal effect (Emax) model, 9-AC L area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and Css correlated with day 15 decrease in neutrophils (R2 = .47), but not platelets. CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of 9-AC colloidal dispersion (CD) given as a 24-hour continuous infusion weekly for 4 of every 5 weeks is 1.65 mg/m2.
Use of dexamethasone and granisetron in the control of delayed emesis for patients who receive highly emetogenic chemotherapy. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.
Latreille J. Pater J. Johnston D. Laberge F. Stewart D. Rusthoven J. Hoskins P. Findlay B. McMurtrie E. Yelle L. Williams C. Walde D. Ernst S. Dhaliwal H. Warr D. Shepherd F. Mee D. Nishimura L. Osoba D. Zee B.
Hotel-Dieu de Montreal Hospital, Quebec, Canada. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To evaluate the roles of granisetron and dexamethasone for emesis control on days 2 through 7 after the administration of cisplatin in doses of 50 mg/m2 or greater to patients who had not previously received chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred thirty-five eligible and assessable patients were randomized to one of two arms in a double-blind fashion: arm A; granisetron 3 mg intravenous (i.v.) plus dexamethasone 10 mg i.v. prechemotherapy followed by granisetron 1 mg orally at 6 and 12 hours, then granisetron 1 mg orally and dexamethasone 8 mg orally twice daily on days 2 through 7 (219 patients); arm B; as in arm A but with placebo substituted for granisetron on days 2 through 7 (216 patients). All patients completed diaries in which episodes of emesis and severity of nausea were recorded. RESULTS: The addition of granisetron on days 2 through 7 had no discernable impact on nausea and vomiting during this period. CONCLUSION: The administration of a 5-hydroxytryptamine3, receptor (5-HT3) antagonist, in this case granisetron, after 24 hours conferred no benefit. This negative result needs to be assessed in light of conflicting literature, but at present it does not appear that the routine use of these drugs in this setting is justified.
Higher levels of thymidylate synthase gene expression are observed in pulmonary as compared with hepatic metastases of colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Gorlick R. Metzger R. Danenberg KD. Salonga D. Miles JS. Longo GS. Fu J. Banerjee D. Klimstra D. Jhanwar S. Danenberg PV. Kemeny N. Bertino JR.
Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
PURPOSE: It has been observed previously that the pulmonary metastases of colorectal adenocarcinoma are less responsive to therapy with fluorouracil (FUra) as compared with other sites of metastasis (liver, local). To investigate the basis of this chemoresistance, the levels of thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA and protein were measured, as TS expression has been shown to be predictive of response to therapy in colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumors were obtained from 19 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (12 hepatic and seven pulmonary). TS expression was measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and TS protein levels were measured by Western blotting. The presence of TS amplification was assessed by Southern blotting. Levels of p53 protein were determined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: TS mRNA expression was shown to be significantly higher in the pulmonary metastases (mean TS/beta-actin ratio, 19.7; n = 7) as compared with the hepatic metastases (mean TS/beta-actin ratio, 4.7; n = 11) of colorectal cancer. Lower TS expression was observed in patients with hepatic metastases who had received prior FUra versus patients who had not been treated. High levels of TS expression in some samples was associated with low-level (two to three gene copies) increases in TS gene copy numbers and this was observed more frequently in the pulmonary metastatic samples. The increased gene copy numbers occurred both in samples with wild-type p53 and those with mutant p53 tumor-suppressor gene as determined by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: High levels of TS enzyme may be the basis of the lack of response of pulmonary metastases to FUra treatment.
Long-term weekly treatment of colorectal metastatic cancer with fluorouracil and leucovorin: results of a multicentric prospective trial of fluorouracil dosage optimization by pharmacokinetic monitoring in 152 patients.
Gamelin E. Boisdron-Celle M. Delva R. Regimbeau C. Cailleux PE. Alleaume C. Maillet ML. Goudier MJ. Sire M. Person-Joly MC. Maigre M. Maillart P. Fety R. Burtin P. Lortholary A. Dumesnil Y. Picon L. Geslin J. Gesta P. Danquechin-Dorval E. Larra F. Robert
Service d'Oncologie Medicale et de Pharmacologie Clinique, Centre Paul Papin, Angers, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: A relationship between fluorouracil (5-FU) dose and response has been previously shown in advanced colorectal cancer. In a previous study with 5-FU stepwise dose escalation in a weekly regimen, and pharmacokinetic monitoring, we defined a therapeutic range for 5-FU plasma levels: 2,000 to 3,000 microg/L (area under the concentration-time curve at 0 to 8 hours [AUC0-8], 16 to 24 mg x h/L). The current study investigated 5-FU therapeutic intensification with individual dose adjustment in a multicentric phase II prospective trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Weekly high-dose 5-FU was administered by 8-hour infusion with 400 mg/m2 leucovorin. The initial dose of 5-FU (1,300 mg/m2) was adapted weekly according to 5-FU plasma levels, to reach the therapeutic range previously determined. RESULTS: A total of 152 patients entered the study from December 1991 to December 1994: 117 patients with measurable metastatic disease and 35 with assessable disease. Toxicity was mainly diarrhea (39%, with 5% grade 3) and hand-foot syndrome (30%, with 2% grade 3). Among 117 patients with measurable disease, 18 had a complete response (CR), 48 a partial response (PR), 35 a minor response (MR) and stable disease (SD), and 16 progressive disease (PD). Median overall survival time was 19 months. The 5-FU therapeutic plasma range was rapidly reached with a variable 5-FU dose in the patient population: mean, 1,803 +/- 386 mg/m2/wk (range, 950 to 3,396). Thirteen patients were immediately in the toxic zone, whereas 51 required a > or = 50% dose increase. CONCLUSION: Individual 5-FU dose adjustment with pharmacokinetic monitoring provided a high survival rate and percentage of responses, with good tolerance.
Isolated hepatic perfusion with tumor necrosis factor and melphalan for unresectable cancers confined to the liver.
Alexander HR Jr. Bartlett DL. Libutti SK. Fraker DL. Moser T. Rosenberg SA.
Surgical Metabolism Section, Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1502, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and systemic and regional toxicities of hyperthermic isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) using tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and melphalan for the treatment of unresectable primary or metastatic cancers confined to the liver. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients (18 men and 16 women; mean age, 49 years) underwent a 60-minute hyperthermic (39.5 degrees to 40.0 degrees C) IHP performed by laparotomy that used TNF 1.0 mg and melphalan 1.5 mg/kg. Perfusion inflow was through the gastroduodenal artery and outflow was from a cannula positioned in an isolated segment of retrohepatic inferior vena cava (IVC). Infrahepatic IVC and portal venous blood flow were shunted to the axillary vein using an external venoveno bypass circuit. Complete vascular isolation of the liver was confirmed by an I-131-labelled human serum albumin monitoring technique. RESULTS: There was no operative mortality. Seventy-five percent of patients had reversible grade III or IV (National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) hepatic toxicity with one treatment-related mortality (3%) because of hepatic venoocclusive disease. In 33 assessable patients, the overall response rate was 75% (complete response, one patient [3%]; partial response, 26 patients [72%]). With a median potential follow-up of 15 months, the mean duration of response was 9 months (range, 2 to 30 months). CONCLUSION: IHP with TNF and melphalan results in significant regression of bulky hepatic cancers confined to the liver in the majority of patients. Based on these initial results, further refinement of this treatment technique is warranted; perhaps by the combination of IHP with other regional treatment strategies to provide long-term control of unresectable cancers confined to liver.
Morbidity and mortality after D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer: results of the Italian Gastric Cancer Study Group prospective multicenter surgical study.
Degiuli M. Sasako M. Ponti A. Soldati T. Danese F. Calvo F.
Department of Oncology, Turin, Italy.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether pancreas preservation together with a strict quality-control system could ameliorate the outcome of D2 resections for gastric cancer in Western patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Italian patients with potentially curable proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach were registered from nine general and/or university hospitals in the area of Turin, Northern Italy. The study was performed according to the guidelines of the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer (JRSGC). A strict quality-control system was guaranteed by a supervising surgeon of the reference center, who had stayed at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, to learn the standard D2 gastrectomy. The standard procedure entailed removal of the level 1 and 2 lymph nodes. During total gastrectomy, the pancreas was preserved according to the Maruyama technique. RESULTS: Between May 1994 and December 1996, 191 eligible patients were entered onto the study. The mean number of lymph nodes removed was 39. The overall morbidity rate was 20.9%. Surgical complications were observed in 16.7% of patients. Reoperation was necessary in six patients and was always successful. The overall hospital mortality rate was 3.1%; it was higher after total gastrectomy (7.46%) than after distal gastrectomy (0.8%). The average length of hospital stay was 17 days. CONCLUSION: Given that postoperative morbidity and mortality rates are favorably comparable with those reported after the Western standard gastrectomy, the more extensive Japanese procedure with pancreas preservation can be regarded as a safe radical treatment of gastric cancer for selected Western patients treated in experienced centers.
Second-line therapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin for recurrent disease following first-line therapy with paclitaxel and platinum in ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma.
Rose PG. Fusco N. Fluellen L. Rodriguez M.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University MacDonald Womens Hospital/University Hospitals of Cleveland and the Ireland Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, OH 44106, USA.
PURPOSE: The combination of paclitaxel and a platinum compound is the most active first-line regimen for advanced ovarian carcinoma. The current study was undertaken to evaluate this combination in the re-treatment of patients with ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma who had disease recurrence > or = 6 months following this combination. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with recurrent ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma > or = 6 months after a complete clinical response with first-line paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy were studied. Recurrent disease was documented by computed tomography (CT), elevated CA 125 level, or surgical findings. Second-line chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 as a 24 hour infusion and carboplatin at an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 5 to 6 every 21 days. Response to therapy was classified as measurable or assessable. RESULTS: The median time to recurrence after first-line therapy was 10 months (range, 6 to 30). Among 20 measurable and assessable patients, 14 (70%) demonstrated a complete clinical response and four (20%) a partial clinical response. The response rate with measurable disease was 91% and with assessable disease was 89%. The median progression-free interval for all patients was 9.0+ months (range, 2 to 15). The median progression-free interval for patients with measurable or assessable disease was 9.0+ months and for nonassessable disease was 7.0+ months. Fifteen patients (60%) have developed recurrence after secondary therapy at a median interval of 9.0 months (range, 2 to 15). Only two patients have died with a median survival after secondary therapy of 10.0+ months (range, 2.0 to 21.0+). CONCLUSION: The use of this combination, in this sensitive population, has a high response rate and long progression-free interval. In a chemotherapy-sensitive population, the activity of alternative second-line agents must be interpreted with this perspective.
Late effects in long-term survivors of high-grade non-Hodgkins lymphomas.
Haddy TB. Adde MA. McCalla J. Domanski MJ. Datiles M 3rd. Meehan SC. Pikus A. Shad AT. Valdez I. Lopez Vivino L. Magrath IT.
Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term survivors of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) for late effects and to attempt to assess the relative contributions of the primary treatment modalities to these late effects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 103 young survivors followed up for 1 to 20 years, 74 patients were interviewed and underwent various investigations, and an additional 12 patients were interviewed only. Of the 86 patients, 65 had previously suffered from small non-cleaved-cell lymphoma, 16 from lymphoblastic lymphoma, and five from large-cell lymphoma. RESULTS: Left ventricular dysfunction was identified in eight of 57 (14.0%) patients who had received doxorubicin (DOX) in doses greater than 200 mg/m2, of whom four were symptomatic and four were asymptomatic. A ninth patient required a pacemaker. Of the 86 patients, 23 (26.7%) reported pregnancies, 18 of whom had 30 children. Two of the 86 (2.3%) patients developed second cancers. Other major late effects included posttransfusion viral hepatitis, eight patients; CNS toxicity, two patients; endocrine impairment, 14 patients; vitamin B12 deficiency, two patients; esophageal stricture, one patient; urinary tract problems, two patients; and musculoskeletal defects, three patients. Major late effects occurred in 11 of 21 (52.4%) patients who had received radiation as well as chemotherapy, eight of 22 (36.4%) patients who had surgical resections as well as chemotherapy, and 17 of 74 (23.0%) patients who had received chemotherapy alone. CONCLUSION: The predominant major late effects observed were late cardiac toxicity related to DOX therapy and hepatitis C virus infection that presumably resulted from blood product transfusions administered before the introduction of screening for the hepatitis C virus. Fertility was not greatly impaired, and second malignancies were uncommon. No patient had clinically significant impairment of growth. Radiation appeared to increase the likelihood of late effects.
Unknown primary tumors metastatic to liver.
Ayoub JP. Hess KR. Abbruzzese MC. Lenzi R. Raber MN. Abbruzzese JL.
Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to identify prognostic factors for unknown primary tumor (UPT) patients with hepatic metastases, determine the common primary tumors identified, assess the yield of specific diagnostic studies, and evaluate the impact of therapy on survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 1,522 patients analyzed were referred from January 1, 1987 through June 30, 1995. Clinical data from these patients were entered into a computerized database for storage, retrieval, and analysis. Survival was measured from the time of diagnosis; survival distribution was estimated by the product limit method. Multivariate survival analyses were performed by proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Five hundred UPT patients had liver metastases. Primary tumors, usually lung, colorectal, or pancreatic neoplasms, were identified in 135 patients (27%). The remaining 365 unknown primary carcinoma (UPC) patients with liver involvement had a higher death rate than those without liver involvement (hazards ratio, 1.63; P < .0001). Neuroendocrine carcinoma patients had a lower death rate than patients without this histology (hazards ratio, 0.29; (P < .0001). Two hundred sixteen of 365 patients with UPC and liver metastases received chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated patients had a lower death rate than those who were not treated with chemotherapy (hazards ratio, 0.52; P < .0001). The effect of chemotherapy was most pronounced in patients with adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: Hepatic metastases in UPC patients portend a generally poor prognosis. However, subsets of patients with more favorable outcomes can be identified by available clinical and pathologic data. Chemotherapy may be beneficial for the large subset of UPC patients with adenocarcinoma that involves the liver.
Phase I study of vinorelbine, cisplatin, and concomitant thoracic radiation in the treatment of advanced chest malignancies.
Masters GA. Haraf DJ. Hoffman PC. Drinkard LC. Krauss SA. Ferguson MK. Olak J. Samuels BL. Golomb HM. Vokes EE.
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, IL, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: The cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen has superior activity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a phase I trial to identify the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of this regimen with concomitant thoracic radiation (RT) in patients with advanced chest malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced chest malignancies that required RT were enrolled onto this phase I study of standard chest radiation (30 daily 2-Gy fractions for a total of 60 Gy) and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin starting at 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks and vinorelbine starting at 20 mg/m2/wk. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were treated on this study. Two of three patients treated at the maximum-administered dose of cisplatin 100 mg/m2 per cycle and vinorelbine 25 mg/m2/wk experienced acute DLT (neutropenia), which required deescalation. The dose level of cisplatin 100 mg/m2 and vinorelbine 20 mg/m2/wk, although tolerated acutely, produced delayed esophagitis, which proved dose-limiting. The recommended phase II dose was cisplatin 80 mg/m2 every 3 weeks and vinorelbine 15 mg/m2 given 2 of every 3 weeks with concomitant chest RT. CONCLUSION: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine is feasible. The recommended phase II dose is cisplatin 80 mg/m2 every 3 weeks with vinorelbine 15 mg/m2 given twice over 3 weeks on a day 1/day 8 schedule. Esophagitis is the DLT, with neutropenia occurring at higher dose levels. A Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) phase II trial is currently underway to evaluate further the efficacy and toxicities of this regimen in unresectable stage III NSCLC.
Treatment of intrahepatic cancers with radiation doses based on a normal tissue complication probability model.
McGinn CJ. Ten Haken RK. Ensminger WD. Walker S. Wang S. Lawrence TS.
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0010, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To attempt to safely escalate the dose of radiation for patients with intrahepatic cancer, we designed a protocol in which each patient received the maximum possible dose while being subjected to a 10% risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD, or radiation hepatitis) based on a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. We had two hypotheses: H1; with this approach, we could safely deliver higher doses of radiation than we would have prescribed based on our previous protocol, and H2; the model would predict the observed complication probability (10%). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with either primary hepatobiliary cancer or colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver and normal liver function were eligible. We used an NTCP model with parameters calculated from our previous patient data to prescribe a dose that subjected each patient to a 10% complication risk within the model. Treatment was delivered with concurrent hepatic arterial fluorodeoxyuridine (HA FUdR). Patients were evaluated for RILD 2 and 4 months after the completion of treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients completed treatment and were followed up for at least 3 months. The mean dose delivered by the current protocol was 56.6 +/- 2.31 Gy (range, 40.5 to 81 Gy). This dose was significantly greater than the dose that would have been prescribed by the previous protocol (46.0 +/- 1.65 Gy; range, 33 to 66 Gy; P < .01). These data are consistent with H1. One of 21 patients developed RILD. The complication rate of 4.8% (95% confidence interval, 0% to 23.8%) did not differ significantly from the predicted 8.8% NTCP (based on dose delivered) and excluded a 25% true incidence rate (P < .05). This finding supports H2. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an NTCP model can be used prospectively to safely deliver far greater doses of radiation for patients with intrahepatic cancer than with previous approaches. Although the observed complication probability is within the confidence intervals of our model, it is possible that this model overestimates the risk of complication and that further dose escalation will be possible. Additional follow-up and accrual will be required to determine if these higher doses produce further improvements in response and survival.
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group randomized trials of observation versus maintenance therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer in complete remission following induction treatment.
Falkson G. Gelman RS. Pandya KJ. Osborne CK. Tormey D. Cummings FJ. Sledge GW. Abeloff MD.
University of Pretoria, South Africa. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: To investigate the value of maintenance treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer whose disease is in complete remission (CR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred ninety-five women (141 eligible) whose disease was in CR or in CR except for bone metastases following six cycles (6 months) of doxorubicin-containing induction treatment were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil, prednisone, tamoxifen, and halotestin [CMF(P)TH] or observation. In a previous pilot study, patients in CR after 24 months of induction treatment were randomized to continue chemotherapy for 4 more years or stop chemotherapy. RESULTS: Among patients randomized to CMF(P)TH, life-threatening toxicity included leukopenia in 3%, thrombocytopenia in 3%, cardiac in 2%, and diabetes in 1%. The median time to relapse from randomization was 18.7 months on CMF(P)TH and only 7.8 months on observation (P < .0001). The median time to death was 32.2 months on CMF(P)TH and 28.7 months on observation (P=.74). Similar results were seen in the pilot study (median time to relapse, 12.6 and 6.4 months; median survival, 37.7 and 24.2 months; study too small for statistical significance). Maintenance treatment was always the most significant covariate in time-to-relapse models. CONCLUSION: There is definite toxicity associated with CMF(P)TH maintenance treatment. When CR was obtained on induction, maintenance treatment with CMF(P)TH was never significant in survival models. However, maintenance treatment was always the most significant covariate in the time-to-relapse models, which motivates its consideration for appropriately informed patients.
Radioimmunoscintigraphy of recurrent, metastatic, or occult colorectal cancer with technetium 99m-labeled totally human monoclonal antibody 88BV59: results of pivotal, phase III multicenter studies.
Serafini AN. Klein JL. Wolff BG. Baum R. Chetanneau A. Pecking A. Fischman AJ. Hoover HC Jr. Wynant GE. Subramanian R. Goroff DK. Hanna MG Jr.
Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL, USA.
PURPOSE: To assess the performance and potential clinical impact of a totally human monoclonal antibody, 88BV59 (HumaSPECT) (INTRACEL, Corp, Rockville, MD), in 202 assessable presurgical patients with recurrent, metastatic, or occult colorectal cancer. METHODS: 88BV59, labeled with technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) (HumaSPECT-Tc), was injected intravenously, and planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) images were obtained 14 to 20 hours postinjection. Surgical and pathologic verification of tumor were used as the standard against which the performance of HumaSPECT-Tc imaging and computed tomography (CT) analysis were evaluated. RESULTS: All patients entered onto the recurrent disease study had at least one tumor site defined on CT. The sensitivity of HumaSPECT-Tc in those CT-positive patients was 87%. The specificity of HumaSPECT-Tc was 57% compared with 17% for CT and the difference was statistically significant (P < .001). The diagnostic information provided by HumaSPECT-Tc significantly (P < .001) improved the accuracy of the identification of resectable and nonresectable disease over that of CT (80% v 62%). HumaSPECT-Tc scans resulted in a significant (P < .001) reduction versus CT in terms of the proportion of patients understaged (27% v 41%) and overstaged (4% v 26%). In patients with occult disease (increasing carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] titer, negative diagnostic work-up, negative CT), HumaSPECT-Tc correctly identified disease in 15 of 22 (68%) patients. HumaSPECT-Tc images provided additional clinical data that would have affected patient management decisions in 40 of 202 (19.8%) patients. In 365 patients who received 88BV59, only a single detectable human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response (90 ng/mL) at 9 weeks postinfusion was observed. CONCLUSION: HumaSPECT-Tc can provide important and accurate information about the presence and location of disease in patients with a high clinical suspicion of metastatic or recurrent colorectal cancer and either positive (known disease) or negative (occult disease) CT scans.
Monoclonal antibody therapy for resected Dukes C colorectal cancer: seven-year outcome of a multicenter randomized trial.
Riethmuller G. Holz E. Schlimok G. Schmiegel W. Raab R. Hoffken K. Gruber R. Funke I. Pichlmaier H. Hirche H. Buggisch P. Witte J. Pichlmayr R.
Institut fur Immunologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Germany. email@example.com_muenchen.de
PURPOSE: As previously shown, antibody treatment increased survival of patients with resected colorectal cancer of stage Dukes' C. Since the 5-year analysis was criticized because of the wide range (2.7 to 7.5 years) of follow-up time, we performed a 7-year analysis with only four of 189 patients monitored for less than 5 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 189 patients with resected Dukes' C colorectal cancer were randomly allocated to infusions of a total of 900 mg 17-1A antibody, 500 mg postoperatively followed by 4 monthly doses of 100 mg (n=99), or to observation only (n=90). Primary end points were overall survival and disease-free interval. Patients were stratified by a dynamic randomization according to center, sex, location of tumor, number of affected lymph nodes, and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen concentration. RESULTS: Randomization produced balanced distribution of risk factors. After 7 years of follow-up evaluation, treatment had reduced overall mortality by 32% (Cox's proportional hazard, P < .01; log-rank, P=.01) and decreased the recurrence rate by 23% (Cox's proportional hazard, P < .04; log-rank, P=.07). The intention-to-treat analysis gave a significant effect for overall survival (Cox's proportional hazard, P < .01; log-rank, P=.02) and disease-free survival (Cox's proportional hazard, P=.02; log-rank, P=.11 ). While distant metastases were significantly reduced (Cox's proportional hazard, P=.004; log-rank, P=.004), local relapses were not (Cox's proportional hazard, P=.65; log-rank, P=.52). This differential effect of 17-1A antibody on disseminated isolated tumor cells versus occult local satellites may explain the increased significance seen in the overall survival. CONCLUSION: The now-matured study shows that 17-1A antibody administered after surgery prevents the development of distant metastasis in approximately one third of patients. The therapeutic effect is maintained after 7 years of follow-up evaluation.
Phase II trial of paclitaxel, fluorouracil, and cisplatin in patients with advanced carcinoma of the esophagus.
Ilson DH. Ajani J. Bhalla K. Forastiere A. Huang Y. Patel P. Martin L. Donegan J. Pazdur R. Reed C. Kelsen DP.
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: We have previously identified paclitaxel as an active single agent in the treatment of esophageal cancer. We performed a phase II trial of paclitaxel in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil (5-FU), conventionally used chemotherapy for esophageal cancer. The antitumor response, toxicity, and survival of patients treated with the three-drug regimen were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients with advanced, surgically unresectable, or metastatic squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were treated. No prior chemotherapy was allowed. Thirty patients had adenocarcinoma and 31 patients had squamous cell carcinoma. The majority (47 patients; 77%) had metastatic disease and 14 patients (23%) had an unresectable primary or locally recurrent tumor. Patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 by 3-hour infusion day 1; cisplatin 20 mg/m2 daily days 1 through 5, and 5-FU by continuous infusion at a dose of 1,000 mg/m2 daily days 1 through 5. Because of toxicity observed in the first 10 patients treated, the starting dose of 5-FU was subsequently reduced to 750 mg/m2 daily in the remaining patients. A planned attenuation of cisplatin to 15 mg/m2 daily was made after the first three cycles. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was not routinely administered unless the patient had an episode of febrile neutropenia or prolonged grade 4 neutropenia. Treatment was recycled every 28 days. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients completed a median of five cycles, and 60 patients were assessable for response. Major responses were seen in 29 patients (48%; 95% confidence intervals, 35 to 61), which included seven complete responses (12%). Comparable response rates were seen for patients with adenocarcinoma (46%) and those with squamous carcinoma (50%), and for patients with metastatic disease (22 of 46 patients; 48%) and those with locally advanced disease (seven of 14 patients; 50%). A significantly higher complete response rate was observed in patients with squamous carcinoma (20%) compared with those with adenocarcinoma (3%; chi2 P=.04). The median duration of response was 5.7 months (range, 1 to 18.6 months). Median survival was 10.8 months (range, 1.5 to 25 months). Toxicity was severe but manageable with dose attenuation, and included 18% of patients with grade 3 neurologic toxicity. Twenty-eight patients (46%) required a dose attenuation for toxicity, and 42 of 275 treatment cycles (15%) required a dose attenuation. Twenty-nine patients (48%) required hospitalization for toxicity, which included 11 patients for neutropenic fever (18%). There were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSION: The combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU has substantial antitumor activity in metastatic esophageal carcinoma, with a remarkable complete response rate noted in patients with squamous carcinoma. Paclitaxel is an important new agent in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma, and further evaluation of this agent in combination chemotherapy is warranted. Given the toxicity associated with the current regimen, the optimal dose and schedule of paclitaxel in combination chemotherapy remain to be established.
Ninety-six-hour infusional paclitaxel as salvage therapy of ovarian cancer patients previously failing treatment with 3-hour or 24-hour paclitaxel infusion regimens.
Markman M. Rose PG. Jones E. Horowitz IR. Kennedy A. Webster K. Belinson J. Fusco N. Fluellen L. Kulp B. Peterson G. McGuire WP.
Department of Hematology/Medical Oncology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that prolonged infusion of paclitaxel (96 hours) might overcome resistance to shorter infusion schedules (3 or 24 hours) in ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (24 patients), primary carcinoma of the peritoneum (four patients), or fallopian tube cancer (two patients) who previously had received paclitaxel administered on either a 3-hour or 24-hour schedule were treated with the agent delivered as a 96-hour infusion (30 to 35 mg/m2/d x 4 days) on an every 3-week program. RESULTS: Although the regimen generally was well tolerated, no objective responses were observed. CONCLUSION: In patients with ovarian cancer who have shown resistance to shorter paclitaxel infusion schedules, ninety-six hour infusional paclitaxel is an inactive treatment strategy. This makes it less likely that protracted infusion of paclitaxel will improve outcome when used as part of primary therapy of ovarian cancer. An ongoing randomized study will answer that question.
Treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach with radiation alone.
Schechter NR. Portlock CS. Yahalom J.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
PURPOSE: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach (MLS) has recently been defined as a distinct clinicopathologic entity, often associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Many regard antibiotic therapy as the primary treatment of MLS, but in the absence of H pylori infection, or when salvage of antibiotic failures is required, gastrectomy and/or chemotherapy have frequently been used. This study evaluates the efficacy of low-dose radiotherapy alone as an alternative to surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with stage I to II(2) low-grade MLS without evidence of H pylori infection or with persistent lymphoma after antibiotic therapy of associated H pylori infection were included in this series. Median age was 69 years (range, 39 to 84). Median total radiation dose was 30 Gy (range, 28.5 to 43.5 Gy) delivered in 1.5-Gy fractions within 4 weeks to the stomach and adjacent lymph nodes. Following treatment, all patients underwent endoscopic evaluation and biopsy at a median of 4 months, at 6-month intervals to 2 years, and annually thereafter. RESULTS: All obtained a biopsy-confirmed complete response. At a median follow-up time of 27 months (range, 11 to 68) from completion of radiotherapy, event-free survival was 100%. Treatment was well tolerated, with no significant acute side effects. All remained asymptomatic at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that effective treatment of MLS with low-dose radiation therapy alone is feasible and safe, and allows stomach preservation. Longer follow-up evaluation is required to determine the long-term efficacy of this treatment approach and its side effects. Further studies should clarify the indications for radiotherapy in H pylori-negative or antibiotic-resistant cases of MLS.