Inhibition of basal and mitogen-stimulated pancreatic cancer cell growth by cyclin D1 antisense is associated with loss of tumorigenicity and potentiation of cytotoxicity to cisplatinum.
Kornmann M. Arber N. Korc M.
Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.
Cyclin D1 belongs to a family of protein kinases that have been implicated in cell cycle regulation. Recent studies have demonstrated that elevated cyclin D1 levels correlate with decreased survival in human pancreatic cancer. In this study we expressed in a stable manner a cyclin D1 antisense cDNA construct in PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. Expression of the antisense construct caused a decrease in cyclin D1 mRNA and protein levels and in cyclin D1-associated kinase activity. Antisense expressing clones displayed significantly increased doubling times, decreased anchorage-dependent and -independent basal growth, and complete loss of tumorigenicity in nude mice. EGF, FGF-2, and IGF-I enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in antisense expressing clones, but failed to stimulate their proliferation. In contrast, all three growth factors were mitogenic in parental cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of cisplatinum on cell proliferation was enhanced markedly in the antisense expressing clones. These findings indicate that cyclin D1 overexpression contributes to abnormal growth and tumorigenicity in human pancreatic cancer and to the resistance of pancreatic cancer to chemotherapeutic agents.
Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B.
Wahl C. Liptay S. Adler G. Schmid RM.
Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
Transcription factors of the NF-kappaB/Rel family are critical for inducible expression of multiple genes involved in inflammatory responses. Sulfasalazine and its salicylate moiety 5-aminosalicylic acid are among the most effective agents for treating inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mode of action of these drugs remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is a target of sulfasalazine-mediated immunosuppression. Treatment of SW620 colon cells with sulfasalazine inhibited TNFalpha-, LPS-, or phorbol ester- induced NF-kappaB activation. NF-kappaB-dependent transcription was inhibited by sulfasalazine at micro- to millimolar concentrations. In contrast, 5-aminosalicylic acid or sulfapyridine did not block NF-kappaB activation at all doses tested. TNFalpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB was prevented by sulfasalazine through inhibition of IkappaBalpha degradation. When blocking proteasome-mediated degradation of IkappaBalpha, we could demonstrate that sulfasalazine interfered with IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, suggesting a direct effect on an IkappaBalpha kinase or on an upstream signal. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation seems to be specific since other DNA-binding activities such as AP1 were not affected. These results demonstrate that sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation, and thus may explain some of the known biological properties of sulfasalazine.
Various mechanisms cause RET-mediated signaling defects in Hirschsprungs disease.
Pelet A. Geneste O. Edery P. Pasini A. Chappuis S. Atti T. Munnich A. Lenoir G. Lyonnet S. Billaud M.
Unite de Recherches sur les Handicaps Genetiques de l'Enfant INSERM U-393, Paris Cedex 15, France.
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a common congenital malformation characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells of the hindgut. Recently, mutations of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor have been identified in 50 and 15-20% of familial and sporadic HSCR, respectively. These mutations include deletion, insertion, frameshift, nonsense, and missense mutations dispersed throughout the RET coding sequence. To investigate their effects on RET function, seven HSCR missense mutations were introduced into either a 1114-amino acid wild-type RET isoform (RET51) or a constitutively activated form of RET51 (RET-MEN 2A). Here, we report that one mutation affecting the extracytoplasmic cadherin domain (R231H) and two mutations located in the tyrosine kinase domain (K907E, E921K) impaired the biological activity of RET-MEN 2A when tested in Rat1 fibroblasts and pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. However, the mechanisms resulting in RET inactivation differed since the receptor bearing R231H extracellular mutation resulted in an absent RET protein at the cell surface while the E921K mutation located within the catalytic domain abolished its enzymatic activity. In contrast, three mutations mapping into the intracytoplasmic domain neither modified the transforming capacity of RET-MEN 2A nor stimulated the catalytic activity of RET in our ligand-independent system (S767R, P1039L, M1064T). Finally, the C609W HSCR mutation exerts a dual effect on RET since it leads to a decrease of the receptor at the cell surface and converted RET51 into a constitutively activated kinase due to the formation of disulfide-linked homodimers. Taken together, our data show that allelic heterogeneity at the RET locus in HSCR is associated with various molecular mechanisms responsible for RET dysfunction.
Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in chronic viral hepatitis. Evidence for a virus-induced gene upregulation.
Majano PL. Garcia-Monzon C. Lopez-Cabrera M. Lara-Pezzi E. Fernandez-Ruiz E. Garcia-Iglesias C. Borque MJ. Moreno-Otero R.
Liver Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28006 Madrid, Spain.
Increased nitric oxide (NO) production may contribute to the pathological changes featuring in some inflammatory diseases, but the role of NO in chronic viral hepatitis is still unknown. We compared the inducible NO synthase (NOS2) expression in the liver of patients with chronic viral hepatitis with that of both nonviral liver disease and histologically normal liver. NOS2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies of liver biopsy sections. An intense hepatocellular NOS2 reactivity was detected in chronic viral hepatitis, whereas it was weakly or not observed in nonviral liver disease or normal liver, respectively. In addition, we determined whether the hepatitis B virus (HBV) might regulate the synthesis of this enzyme. NOS2 mRNA and protein levels as well as enzyme activity were assessed in cytokine-stimulated HBV-transfected and untransfected hepatoma cells. Transfection with either HBV genome or HBV X gene resulted in induction of NOS2 mRNA expression, and the maximal induction of this transcript and NO production was observed in cytokine-stimulated HBV-transfected cells. These results indicate that hepatotropic viral infections are able to upregulate the NOS2 gene expression in human hepatocytes, suggesting that NO may mediate important pathogenic events in the course of chronic viral hepatitis.
Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type Ib. Phosphomannose isomerase deficiency and mannose therapy.
Niehues R. Hasilik M. Alton G. Korner C. Schiebe-Sukumar M. Koch HG. Zimmer KP. Wu R. Harms E. Reiter K. von Figura K. Freeze HH. Harms HK. Marquardt T.
Klinik und Poliklinik fur Kinderheilkunde, 48149 Munster, Germany.
Phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) deficiency is the cause of a new type of carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (CDGS). The disorder is caused by mutations in the PMI1 gene. The clinical phenotype is characterized by protein-losing enteropathy, while neurological manifestations prevailing in other types of CDGS are absent. Using standard diagnostic procedures, the disorder is indistinguishable from CDGS type Ia (phosphomannomutase deficiency). Daily oral mannose administration is a successful therapy for this new type of CDG syndrome classified as CDGS type Ib.
Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor is required in Clostridium difficile- induced enteritis.
Castagliuolo I. Riegler M. Pasha A. Nikulasson S. Lu B. Gerard C. Gerard NP. Pothoulakis C.
Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.
Toxin A, a 308,000-Mr enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in humans. Injection of toxin A into animal intestine triggers an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and immune cells of the intestinal lamina propria, including mast cells and macrophages, and migration of circulating neutrophils in the involved intestinal segment. In this study we show that mice genetically deficient in the neurokinin-1 receptor are protected from the secretory and inflammatory changes as well as from epithelial cell damage induced by toxin A. The protective effect of neurokinin-1R deletion correlates with diminished intestinal levels of the cytokine TNF-alpha and its mRNA and the leukocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase. These results demonstrate a major requirement for substance P receptors in the pathogenesis of acute inflammatory diarrhea.
Tumorigenic conversion of p53-deficient colon epithelial cells by an activated Ki-ras gene.
Sevignani C. Wlodarski P. Kirillova J. Mercer WE. Danielson KG. Iozzo RV. Calabretta B.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.
Distinct genetic abnormalities (loss-of-function mutations of APC and p53 and oncogenic activation of Ki-ras) are associated with specific stages of the sporadic, most common types of colorectal tumors. However, the inability to maintain primary colon epithelial cells in culture has hindered the analysis of the pathogenetic role of these abnormalities in colorectal tumorigenesis. We have now established primary cultures of epithelial cells from the colon crypts of p53-deficient mice; these cells are nontumorigenic as indicated by their failure to form colonies in soft agar and to grow as tumors in immunodeficient SCID mice and in immunocompetent syngeneic hosts. Upon ectopic expression of an activated Ki-ras gene, p53-deficient colon epithelial cells form colonies in soft agar and highly invasive subcutaneous tumors in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice. Ectopic expression of wild-type p53, but not of a DNA-binding-deficient mutant, markedly suppressed the colony-forming ability of the Ki-ras-transformed p53-deficient epithelial cells. Together, these findings establish a functional synergism in colorectal tumorigenesis dependent on the effects of an oncogenic Ki-ras in a p53-deficient background. This model of tumorigenic conversion of colon epithelial cells might be useful to identify genetic changes associated with disease progression and to evaluate the therapeutic response to conventional and novel anticancer drugs.
Helicobacter pylori upregulates expression of epidermal growth factor-related peptides, but inhibits their proliferative effect in MKN 28 gastric mucosal cells.
Romano M. Ricci V. Di Popolo A. Sommi P. Del Vecchio Blanco C. Bruni CB. Ventura U. Cover TL. Blaser MJ. Coffey RJ. Zarrilli R.
Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare "L. Califano," Centro di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Universita "Federico II," Napoli, Italy 80131.
Acute exposure to Helicobacter pylori causes cell damage and impairs the processes of cell migration and proliferation in cultured gastric mucosal cells in vitro. EGF-related growth factors play a major role in protecting gastric mucosa against injury, and are involved in the process of gastric mucosal healing. We therefore studied the acute effect of H. pylori on expression of EGF-related growth factors and the proliferative response to these factors in gastric mucosal cells (MKN 28) derived from gastric adenocarcinoma. Exposure of MKN 28 cells to H. pylori suspensions or broth culture filtrates upregulated mRNA expression of amphiregulin (AR) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), but not TGFalpha. This effect was specifically related to H. pylori since it was not observed with E. coli, and was independent of VacA, CagA, PicA, PicB, or ammonia. Moreover, H. pylori broth culture filtrates stimulated extracellular release of AR and HB-EGF protein by MKN 28 cells. AR and HB-EGF dose-dependently and significantly stimulated proliferation of MKN 28 cells in the absence of H. pylori filtrate, but had no effect in the presence of H. pylori broth culture filtrates. Inhibition of AR- or HB-EGF- induced stimulation of cell growth was not mediated by downregulation of the EGF receptor since EGF receptor protein levels, EGF binding affinity, number of specific binding sites for EGF, or HB-EGF- or AR-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor were not significantly altered by incubation with H. pylori broth culture filtrates. Increased expression of AR and HB-EGF were mediated by an H. pylori factor > 12 kD in size, whereas antiproliferative effects were mediated by both VacA and a factor < 12 kD in size. We conclude that H. pylori increases mucosal generation of EGF-related peptides, but in this acute experimental model, this event is not able to counteract the inhibitory effect of H. pylori on cell growth. The inhibitory effect of H. pylori on the reparative events mediated by EGF-related growth factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced gastroduodenal injury.
Na-K-2Cl cotransporter gene expression and function during enterocyte differentiation. Modulation of Cl- secretory capacity by butyrate.
Matthews JB. Hassan I. Meng S. Archer SY. Hrnjez BJ. Hodin RA.
Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. email@example.com
The basolateral Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is a key component of the intestinal crypt cell secretory apparatus. Its fate during the transition to absorptive enterocyte and the potential impact of its altered expression on secretory output have not been addressed. In this report, NKCC1 mRNA was found to be expressed in rat jejunal crypt but not villus cells. Butyrate treatment of intestinal epithelial HT29 cells induced a differentiation pattern that recapitulated the rat intestinal crypt-villus axis, with NKCC1 mRNA levels decreasing in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in parallel with upregulation of apical brush-border markers. Butyrate but not acetate or proprionate decreased basal and cAMP-stimulated bumetanide-sensitive K+ (86Rb) uptake in both HT29 cells and the Cl--secreting T84 line. Butyrate markedly decreased transepithelial Cl- secretion in confluent T84 monolayers without effect on cAMP-regulated apical Cl- efflux. We conclude that NKCC1 regulation during enterocyte differentiation occurs at the level of gene expression, and that selective downregulation of NKCC1 gene expression and function by butyrate leads to a profound decrease in transepithelial Cl- secretion. These data emphasize the importance of NKCC1 in determining epithelial secretory capacity and suggest the possibility of modulation of the enterocytic transport phenotype as therapy for diarrheal disorders.
Insulin-like growth factor system abnormalities in hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. Potential insights into increasing bone mass in adults.
Khosla S. Hassoun AA. Baker BK. Liu F. Zein NN. Whyte MP. Reasner CA. Nippoldt TB. Tiegs RD. Hintz RL. Conover CA.
Endocrine Research Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. Khosla@mayo.edu
Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO) is a rare disorder characterized by a marked increase in bone mass during adult life. Despite the rarity of HCAO, understanding the mediator(s) of the skeletal disease is of great interest. The IGFs-I and -II have potent anabolic effects on bone, and alterations in the IGFs and/or IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) could be responsible for the increase in bone formation in this disorder. Thus, we assayed sera from seven cases of HCAO for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IIE (an IGF-II precursor), and IGFBPs. The distribution of the serum IGFs and IGFBPs between their ternary ( approximately 150 kD) and binary (approximately 50 kD) complexes was also determined to assess IGF bioavailability. HCAO patients had normal serum levels of IGF-I and -II, but had markedly elevated levels of IGF-IIE. Of the IGFBPs, an increase in IGFBP-2 was unique to these patients and was not found in control hepatitis C or hepatitis B patients. IGF-I and -II in sera from patients with HCAO were carried, as in the case of sera from control subjects, bound to IGFBP-3 in the approximately 150-kD complex, which is retained in the circulation. However, IGF-IIE was predominantly in the approximately 50-kD complex in association with IGFBP-2; this complex can cross the capillary barrier and access target tissues. In vitro, we found that IGF-II enhanced by over threefold IGFBP-2 binding to extracellular matrix produced by human osteoblasts and that in an extracellular matrix-rich environment, the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex was as effective as IGF-II alone in stimulating human osteoblast proliferation. Thus, IGFBP-2 may facilitate the targeting of IGFs, and in particular IGF-IIE, to skeletal tissue in HCAO patients, with a subsequent stimulation by IGFs of osteoblast function. Our findings in HCAO suggest a possible means to increase bone mass in patients with osteoporosis.
Activation of NF-kappaB by adherent Pseudomonas aeruginosa in normal and cystic fibrosis respiratory epithelial cells.
DiMango E. Ratner AJ. Bryan R. Tabibi S. Prince A.
Department of Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York 10032, USA.
PMN-dominated airway inflammation is a major component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Epithelial cells respond to organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the major pathogen in CF, by expressing the leukocyte chemokine IL-8. Experiments were performed using several different types of respiratory epithelial cells that demonstrate that ligation of ceramide-associated receptors on epithelial surfaces by P. aeruginosa pili is a major stimulus for the translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and initiation of IL-8 expression by epithelial cells. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Western hybridizations, nuclear NF-kappaB was found shortly after epithelial cells were stimulated by either whole organisms, isolated pili, or antibody to the pilin receptor asialoGM1. IB3 cells, which express mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) (DeltaF508/W1282X), were noted to have significantly greater amounts of endogenous nuclear NF-kappaB, but not the transcription factor C/EBP, than CF cells corrected by episomal copies of normal CFTR (C-38) or IB3 cells grown at a permissive temperature (25 degreesC). Activation of NF-kappaB and subsequent IL-8 expression in epithelial cells can result from activation of at least two pathways: an exogenous signaling cascade that is activated by ligation of ceramide-associated adhesins such as P. aeruginosa pilin, or endogenous stimulation, suggested to be a consequence of cell stress caused by the accumulation of mutant CFTR in the endoplasmic reticulum.