Characterization and regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in human hepatic stellate cells.
Gentilini A. Feliers D. Pinzani M. Woodruff K. Abboud S.
Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, 78284, USA.
Cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the cell type primarily involved in the progression of liver fibrosis, secrete insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein (IGFBP) activity. IGF-I exerts a mitogenic effect on HSCs, thus potentially contributing to the fibrogenic process in an autocrine fashion. However, IGF-I action is modulated by the presence of specific IGFBPs that may inhibit and/or enhance its biologic effects. Therefore, we examined IGFBP-1 through IGFBP-6 mRNA and protein expression in HSCs isolated from human liver and activated in culture. Regulation of IGFBPs in response to IGF-I and other polypeptide growth factors involved in the hepatic fibrogenic process was also assessed. RNase protection assays and ligand blot analysis demonstrated that HSCs express IGFBP-2 through IGFBP-6 mRNAs and release detectable levels of IGFBP-2 through IGFBP-5. Because IGF-I, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) stimulate HSC proliferation and/or matrix production, we tested their effect on IGFBPs released by HSCs. IGF-I induced IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 proteins in a time-dependent manner without an increase in the corresponding mRNAs. IGFBP-4 protein levels decreased in response to IGF-I. TGF-beta stimulated IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein but decreased IGFBP-5 mRNA and protein. In contrast, PDGF-BB failed to regulate IGFBPs compared with controls. Recombinant human IGFBP-3 (rhIGFBP-3) was then tested for its effect on IGF-I-induced mitogenesis in HSCs. rhIGFBP-3 inhibited IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, with a peak effect observed at 25 nM IGFBP-3. Because TGF-beta is highly expressed in cirrhotic liver tissue, we determined whether IGFBP-3 mRNA expression is increased in liver biopsies obtained from patients with an active fibroproliferative response due to viral-induced chronic active hepatitis. In the majority of these samples, IGFBP-3 mRNA was increased compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that human HSCs, in their activated phenotype, constitutively produce IGFBPs. IGF-I and TGF-beta differentially regulate IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, and IGFBP-5 expression, which, in turn, may modulate the in vitro and in vivo action of IGF-I.
Regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase expression by cytokines and polyamines in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2).
Desiderio MA. Pogliaghi G. Dansi P.
Institute of General Pathology, University of Milan, Italy.
Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (cSAT), a key enzyme in polyamine degradation, is induced by various hepatotoxins and liver tumor promoters. In this paper we demonstrate that physiological factors, such as cytokines, control cSAT expression in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the cSAT mRNA precursor (3.5 kb) at 4 h. The mature form of mRNA (1.3 kb) increased 6-8-fold between 8 and 10 h, and remained elevated until 18 h. An increase in cSAT activity (2-fold) and high levels of N1-acetylspermidine were observed concomitantly. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) enhanced cSAT expression (both mRNA and enzyme activity) similar to HGF, while tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was less effective. This system also provides a useful means for examining the involvement of negative and positive changes of polyamines in the induction of cSAT and c-jun, a gene that participates in the control of cSAT expression. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) pretreatment, by lowering putrescine and spermidine in HGF- or IL-1 beta-treated cells, prevented the induction of cSAT. This effect was reversed by exogenous putrescine or spermidine. IL-1 beta induced c-jun mRNA more than HGF. DFMO prevented almost completely the enhancement of c-jun mRNA expression by IL-1 beta, and this effect was reversed by exogenous putrescine or spermidine. Therefore, we suggest that cSAT and c-jun expression is specifically regulated by polyamine-mediated mechanisms in IL-1 beta treated HepG2 cells. Since cSAT is inducibile by cytokines that control tumor metabolism and growth as well as tumor-host interaction, we hypothesize an involvement of cSAT in hepatoma growth.
Expression of TGFalpha autocrine activity in human colon carcinoma CBS cells is autoregulated and independent of exogenous epidermal growth factor.
Jiang D. Liang J. Humphrey LE. Yang H. Brattain MG.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, USA.
Autocrine transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) activity and control mechanisms for its expression were examined in a representative clonal isolate (CBS4) of a well-differentiated human colon carcinoma cell line designated CBS. CBS4 cells expressed TGFalpha and its receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr). Blockade of EGFr and TGFalpha by neutralizing antibodies inhibited clonal growth and the initiation of DNA synthesis from quiescence in CBS4 cells. Therefore, TGFalpha is an autocrine growth factor for CBS4 cells. Several studies have indicated that activation of the EGFr by exogenous EGF stimulates TGFalpha expression. However, in CBS4 cells EGF did not induce TGFalpha mRNA expression, indicating that EGF does not affect TGFalpha transcription in these cells. Exogenous treatment of exponentially growing cells with either EGF or EGFr blocking antibody enhanced release of TGFalpha protein into the conditioned medium. This indicated that the release of TGFalpha into the conditioned medium by exogenous EGF was at least partially due to the displacement of TGFalpha from the TGFalpha/EGFr complexes. Similarly to exponentially growing cells, the EGFr blocking antibody and EGF also enhanced TGFalpha release into the medium of CBS4 cells after release from quiescence. These results indicated that exogenous EGF had little if any effect on TGFalpha expression in these cells and suggested that TGFalpha expression might be under endogenous TGFalpha control. Blockade of the autocrine TGFalpha loop by TGFalpha neutralizing antibody suppressed TGFalpha mRNA both in exponentially growing and quiescent cells, demonstrating that autocrine TGFalpha is autoregulatory in this system.
Constitutive activation of Jak-2 and Tyk-2 in a v-Src-transformed human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.
Murakami Y. Nakano S. Niho Y. Hamasaki N. Izuhara K.
Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Shizuoka, Japan.
It is well known that v-Src phosphorylates various substrates on tyrosine residue and associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins as well as proline-rich ligands through its SH2 and SH3 domains, respectively, thereby inducing oncogenic transformation. A signal pathway from the cell surface to genes in the nucleus, the Jak/STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway, has been shown to be involved in the signal transduction mechanism mediated by many cytokines and growth factors. Although a member of the STAT family, STAT3 has been reported to be constitutively activated in several v-Src-transformed cells, and it still remains unknown whether Jak molecules, which act upstream of STATs, are involved in the v-Src-induced activation mechanism of STAT3. In this study, we analyzed activations of both Jak and STAT molecules using v-Src-transformed HAG-1 cells derived from a human gallbladder adenocarcinoma. STAT3 was found to be constitutively activated in v-Src-transformed HAG-1 cells, but not in either non-transformed mock-transfected or activated c-H-ras-transfected HAG-1 cells, even though the other known STAT molecules are expressed. Furthermore, both Jak-2 and Tyk-2 were constitutively activated only in v-Src-transformed HAG-1 cells. Association of v-Src with either STAT3 or the Jak molecules was not observed. No change of this activation was detected by either interferon (IFN)-alpha2a or IFN-gamma, which had shown inhibitory effects on the growth of v-Src-transformed HAG-1 cells. These results raise the possibility that Jak-2 and Tyk-2 are both activated by v-Src, thereby contributing to the constitutive activation of STAT3 in the v-Src-transformed cells.
Antagonistic regulation of cell migration by epidermal growth factor and glucocorticoid in human gastric carcinoma cells.
Murakami N. Fukuchi S. Takeuchi K. Hori T. Shibamoto S. Ito F.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced the disruption and scattering of colonies of TMK-1, a cell line derived from a human gastric carcinoma. A stimulatory action of EGF on cell migration was also observed as determined by a wound assay. However, these actions of EGF were inhibited if the cells were pretreated with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid. Dexamethasone increased cell adhesion to collagen type IV and laminin, but not to poly-L-lysine and fibronectin. In contrast, EGF did not affect cell adhesion to these extracellular matrices whether dexamethasone was present or not. Dexamethasone enhanced the protein levels of both alpha1 and beta1 integrin subunits, and that of the alpha1 beta1 heterodimer. Further, flow cytometric analysis revealed that dexamethasone increased the expression of beta1 and alpha1 integrin subunits at the cell surface, whereas EGF increased expression of beta1 and alpha2 subunits at the cell surface. Antibodies against alpha1 and beta1 integrin subunits inhibited the increased cell adhesion seen in the presence of dexamethasone. An immunofluorescence study indicated that dexamethasone increased the formation of focal adhesions along the entire edges of cell colonies. In contrast, EGF led to the formation of focal adhesions preferentially at the cell front, and this EGF-induced preferential formation was not observed if the cells were pretreated with dexamethasone. These results suggest that glucocorticoid increased cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix via alpha1 beta1 integrin, and thereby antagonized EGF-induced cell migration.