CAS/Crk coupling serves as a molecular switch for induction of cell migration.
Klemke RL. Leng J. Molander R. Brooks PC. Vuori K. Cheresh DA.
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. email@example.com
Carcinoma cells selected for their ability to migrate in vitro showed enhanced invasive properties in vivo. Associated with this induction of migration was the anchorage-dependent phosphorylation of p130CAS (Crk-associated substrate), leading to its coupling to the adaptor protein c-CrkII (Crk). In fact, expression of CAS or its adaptor protein partner Crk was sufficient to promote cell migration, and this depended on CAS tyrosine phosphorylation facilitating an SH2-mediated complex with Crk. Cytokine-stimulated cell migration was blocked by CAS lacking the Crk binding site or Crk containing a mutant SH2 domain. This migration response was characterized by CAS/Crk localization to membrane ruffles and blocked by the dominant-negative GTPase, Rac, but not Ras. Thus, CAS/Crk assembly serves as a "molecular switch" for the induction of cell migration and appears to contribute to the invasive property of tumors.
Actinin-4, a novel actin-bundling protein associated with cell motility and cancer invasion.
Honda K. Yamada T. Endo R. Ino Y. Gotoh M. Tsuda H. Yamada Y. Chiba H. Hirohashi S.
Pathology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo 104, Japan.
Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton may play a crucial role in cell motility and cancer invasion. We have produced a monoclonal antibody (NCC- Lu-632, IgM, k) reactive with an antigenic protein that is upregulated upon enhanced cell movement. The cDNA for the antigen molecule was found to encode a novel isoform of nonmuscle alpha-actinin. This isoform (designated actinin-4) was concentrated in the cytoplasm where cells were sharply extended and in cells migrating and located at the edge of cell clusters, but was absent from focal adhesion plaques or adherens junctions, where the classic isoform (actinin-1) was concentrated. Actinin-4 shifted steadily from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase or actin depolymerization. The cytoplasmic localization of actinin-4 was closely associated with an infiltrative histological phenotype and correlated significantly with a poorer prognosis in 61 cases of breast cancer. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic actinin-4 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and increases cellular motility and that its inactivation by transfer to the nucleus abolishes the metastatic potential of human cancers.
Association between the rat homologue of CO-029, a metastasis-associated tetraspanin molecule and consumption coagulopathy.
Claas C. Seiter S. Claas A. Savelyeva L. Schwab M. Zoller M.
Department of Tumorprogression and Immune Defense, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
Recently, we have described a panel of metastasis-associated antigens in the rat, i.e., of molecules expressed on metastasizing, but not on nonmetastasizing tumor lines. One of these molecules, recognized by the monoclonal antibody D6.1 and named accordingly D6. 1A, was found to be abundantly expressed predominantly on mesenchyme-derived cells. The DNA of the antigen has been isolated and cloned. Surprisingly, the gene product proved to interfere strongly with coagulation. The 1.182-kb cDNA codes for a 235-amino acid long molecule with a 74.2% homology in the nucleotide and a 70% homology in the amino acid sequence to CO-029, a human tumor-associated molecule. According to the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, D6.1A belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily. Western blotting of D6.1A-positive metastasizing tumor lines revealed that the D6.1A, like many tetraspanin molecules, is linked to further membrane molecules, one of which could be identified as alpha6beta1 integrin. Transfection of a low-metastasizing tumor cell line with D6.1A cDNA resulted in increased metastatic potential and provided a clue as to the functional role of D6.1A. We noted massive bleeding around the metastases and, possibly as a consequence, local infarctions predominantly in the mesenteric region and all signs of a consumption coagulopathy. By application of the D6.1 antibody the coagulopathy was counterregulated, though not prevented. It has been known for many years that tumor growth and progression is frequently accompanied by thrombotic disorders. Our data suggest that the phenomenon could well be associated with the expression of tetraspanin molecules.
Filipin-dependent inhibition of cholera toxin: evidence for toxin internalization and activation through caveolae-like domains.
Orlandi PA. Fishman PH.
Membrane Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4440, USA.
The mechanism by which cholera toxin (CT) is internalized from the plasma membrane before its intracellular reduction and subsequent activation of adenylyl cyclase is not well understood. Ganglioside GM1, the receptor for CT, is predominantly clustered in detergent-insoluble glycolipid rafts and in caveolae, noncoated, cholesterol-rich invaginations on the plasma membrane. In this study, we used filipin, a sterol-binding agent that disrupts caveolae and caveolae-like structures, to explore their role in the internalization and activation of CT in CaCo-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. When toxin internalization was quantified, only 33% of surface-bound toxin was internalized by filipin-treated cells within 1 h compared with 79% in untreated cells. However, CT activation as determined by its reduction to form the A1 peptide and CT activity as measured by cyclic AMP accumulation were inhibited in filipin-treated cells. Another sterol-binding agent, 2-hydroxy-beta-cyclodextrin, gave comparable results. The cationic amphiphilic drug chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent, receptor-mediated endocytosis, however, affected neither CT internalization, activation, nor activity in contrast to its inhibitory effects on diphtheria toxin cytotoxicity. As filipin did not inhibit the latter, the two drugs appeared to distinguish between caveolae- and coated pit-mediated processes. In addition to its effects in CaCo-2 cells that express low levels of caveolin, filipin also inhibited CT activity in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and Jurkat T lymphoma cells that are, respectively, rich in or lack caveolin. Thus, filipin inhibition correlated more closely with alterations in the biochemical characteristics of CT-bound membranes due to the interactions of filipin with cholesterol rather than with the expressed levels of caveolin and caveolar structure. Our results indicated that the internalization and activation of CT was dependent on and mediated through cholesterol- and glycolipid-rich microdomains at the plasma membrane rather than through a specific morphological structure and that these glycolipid microdomains have the necessary components required to mediate endocytosis.