Relationship between recurrence of gastric ulcer and the microcirculation.
Akimoto M. Hashimoto H. Shigemoto M. Yokoyama I.
Institute of Geriatrics, Tokyo Women's Medical College, Japan.
We investigated the relationship between microcirculatory disturbance and the host response to Helicobacter pylori infections in gastric ulcer scars to determine the role of endothelin-1 (ET) in ulcer recurrence. The subjects were divided into three groups. The GuS group consisted of patients who had red scarring (S1 stage) at the gastric angle with H. pylori, the gast+ group who had gastritis with H. pylori, and the gast- group who had gastritis without H. pylori. During endoscopic examination, biopsies were taken from the gastric angle. Mucosal ET, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and RANTES were measured. ET, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and endothelial constitutive NOS (ecNOS) were immunostained. Mucosal ET and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were significantly higher in the GuS group than in the other groups. IL-8 was elevated in the GuS and gast+ groups, and RANTES was elevated in the gast+ group (p < 0.01). There was prominent inflammatory cell infiltration in the GuS group. ET-positive cells were found in vascular smooth muscle, gastric epithelium, and gastric smooth muscle. iNOS-positive cells were found in vascular smooth muscle, gastric epithelium, gastric smooth muscle, and inflammatory cells. In conclusion, local inflammation and microcirculatory disturbance persist at the center of the ulcer scar (S1). Decreased cytokine levels and increased ET and NO (mainly synthesized by iNOS) levels suggested that microcirculatory disturbance is a more important factor than immune response in ulcer recurrence.
Production and secretion of two vasoactive peptides, endothelin-1 and adrenomedullin, by a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, DLD-1.
Nakayama M. Takahashi K. Hara E. Murakami O. Totsune K. Sone M. Satoh F. Shibahara S.
Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.
Production and secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adrenomedullin (ADM) by a cultured human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, DLD-1, were studied by radioimmunoassay and Northern blot analysis. Both immunoreactive (IR)-ET and IR-ADM were detected by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of DLD-1 (IR-ET 0.86 +/- 0.05 fmol/10(5) cells/ 24 h; IR-ADM 1.20 +/- 0.09 fmol/10(5) cells/24 h; n = 5, mean +/- SEM). An analysis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the IR-ET in the culture medium showed a major immunoreactive peak in the position of ET-1. Reverse-phase HPLC of the IR-ADM in the medium showed three immunoreactive peaks, one of which eluted in the position of human ADM. Northern blot analysis showed the expression of ET-1 mRNA and ADM mRNA in the DLD-1 cells. Treatment with interferon-gamma (1-100 U/ml) for 24 h decreased the IR-ET levels in the culture medium but significantly increased IR-ADM levels. This study has shown the production and secretion of two vasoactive peptides, ET-1 and ADM, by DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The secretion of IR-ET was decreased by treatment with interferon-gamma. These findings suggest possible pathophysiologic roles for ET-1 and ADM in colon mucosal epithelial cells and tumors derived from them.
The effect of oxygen and carbon dioxide on tumor cell endothelin-1 production.
Bell KM. Chaplin DJ.
Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, England.
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is produced by some tumor cells, but the dependence of this production on pO2 and pCO2, conditions relevant within the tumor microenvironment, has not been described. HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells and DU145 prostate carcinoma cells produce similar amounts of ET-1 in vitro under normal cell culture conditions of 21% O2/5% CO2 (normoxia). Exposure of HT29 cells to either 2% O2 or 0.2% O2 significantly reduced ET-1 production compared to cells in normoxia. In contrast, production of ET-1 by DU145 cells was usually unaffected by hypoxia and was even slightly increased in cells exposed to 2% O2 in HEPES-buffered EMEM (HEPES-EMEM). Exposure of cells to either 2.2% CO2 or 7.1% CO2 had no effect on the production of ET-1 by cells in bicarbonate-buffered EMEM (EMEM). However, in HEPES-EMEM, ET-1 production by both cell lines was reduced in 7.1% CO2. A slight reduction in ET-1 produced by DU145 cells was also observed in 2.2% CO2. These results illustrate that changes in ET-1 production by tumor cells in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia are tumor-dependent. It is clear that the production of ET-1 by tumor cells under normal culture conditions may not accurately reflect production within the tumor microenvironment. A greater insight into the in vivo situation, however, may be possible by modifying the cell culture conditions.