Relation of colonic transit to functional bowel disease in older people: a population-based study.
Evans JM. Fleming KC. Talley NJ. Schleck CD. Zinsmeister AR. Melton LJ 3rd.
Division of Community Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology underlying chronic constipation in older people is poorly understood. Our objective was to determine if functional bowel disease (particularly constipation) in this population is associated with risk factors (age, immobility, low dietary fiber intake, and medication use) or directly with slow colonic transit. METHODS: A previously validated questionnaire was administered to a random sample of older residents (age range 65-104 years, n = 1609) of Olmsted County, MN. A random subset who met standard diagnostic criteria for functional constipation (n = 52) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (n = 55) and a group without gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 93) were selected for further study. Each subject underwent structured interview and physical examination. Total caloric and fiber intake were assessed by dietitian interview, a food frequency questionnaire, and a food diary. Physical activity was assessed using a previously validated instrument. Medication use was determined by self-report, physician interview, and review of medical records. Total and segmental colonic transit was assessed radiographically using radioopaque markers. RESULTS: Total colonic transit times were prolonged in subjects with functional constipation (median 50.4 hours) but not in subjects with IBS (median 34.2 hours) or in healthy controls (median 28.8 hours); however, only rectosigmoid transit was delayed significantly. Age, gender, physical activity, and dietary fiber intake were not associated with total transit times, nor could they discriminate among the three patient groups. Laxative use was associated with prolonged total transit times independent of patient group. CONCLUSIONS: Older subjects can be classified by abdominal pain and bowel symptoms, which reflect colonic transit times. Older subjects with constipation symptoms generally have prolonged rectosigmoid transit. Other potential risk factors do not distinguish symptom subgroups, nor are they associated with altered colonic transit although older people who use laxatives regularly have prolonged colonic transit.
Urinary incontinence in a community-based cohort: prevalence and healthcare-seeking.
Roberts RO. Jacobsen SJ. Rhodes T. Reilly WT. Girman CJ. Talley NJ. Lieber MM.
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence and to assess care-seeking behavior for urinary symptoms among community-dwelling people. DESIGN: A community-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Randomly selected men and women from Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS: Two cohorts, one comprised of both men (n = 778) and women (n = 762) 50 years of age or older and a second comprised of men aged 40 years or older (n = 2150). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed questionnaires assessing urinary incontinence in the previous 12 months, the number of days leaked, the amount leaked, and healthcare-seeking measures for urinary symptoms. RESULTS: In the first cohort, the prevalence of incontinence was 24% in men and 49% in women; 29% of men and 13% of women with incontinence had sought care for urinary symptoms. Urinary incontinence was more strongly associated with care-seeking measures for urinary symptoms in men (Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 2.4, 8.0) than in women (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.9). Moderate or severe urinary incontinence was associated significantly with care-seeking for urinary symptoms (OR = 10.5, 95% CI = 5.6, 19.8). In the second cohort, the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 17.3%; 8.5% of men with incontinence had sought care for urinary symptoms. Men with incontinence were 1.2 times (95% CI = .8, 1.9) as likely to seek care for urinary symptoms as men without incontinence. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that although urinary incontinence is relatively common in the community, care-seeking for urinary symptoms among persons with urinary incontinence is low, particularly among women, for whom the prevalence exceeds 40% between the ages of 50 and 70 years. These findings suggest that strategies to promote care-seeking for incontinence need to be investigated and employed in the community.
Low airloss hydrotherapy versus standard care for incontinent hospitalized patients.
Bennett RG. Baran PJ. DeVone LV. Bacetti H. Kristo B. Tayback M. Greenough WB 3rd.
Johns Hopkins Geriatrics Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low airloss hydrotherapy reduces the incidence of new skin lesions associated with incontinence in hospitalized patients and results in more rapid healing of existing pressure sores compared with standard care. To assess subjectively patient and nursing satisfaction related to using low airloss hydrotherapy beds. DESIGN: Randomized, prospective, unblinded study. SETTING: Acute and chronic hospital wards. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 116 newly admitted, incontinent, hospitalized patients with and without existing pressure sores. INTERVENTION: Low airloss hydrotherapy compared with treatment on hospital beds and mattresses ordered by the patient's attending physician. MEASUREMENTS: Incidence rates of new skin lesion development, e.g., pressure sores, candidiasis, and chemical irritation; improvement in existing pressure sore size, volume, and status; subjective assessment of patient and nursing satisfaction. RESULTS: Possible hypothermia was identified in two patients during the first week of the study, and patient and nursing dissatisfaction with low airloss hydrotherapy remained high throughout the first months of the study. Therefore, two major modifications in the initial protocol were made: (1) increased patient temperature monitoring for hypothermia was initiated in Week 2 of the study and (2) increased staff resources for in-service training on bed use began in Week 18 of the study. After the latter change, 58 subjects were randomized to low airloss hydrotherapy and 58 to standard care. Subjects were old (median age > or = 80 years), and almost all were bedbound or nonambulatory. The median (range) length of follow-up for subjects in the treatment group was significantly shorter than for those in the control group (4 (1-60) days versus 6 (1-62) days, respectively, P = .017) because there were more dropouts from the treatment group (24 (36%) of 58 versus 2 (3%) of 58, P = .0001). The major reasons dropout occurred were patient or family dissatisfaction (12 (21%)), new or worsened skin lesions thought to be related to bed use (4 (7%)), and hypothermia < 97 degrees F (4 (7%)). The total cumulative incidence of new truncal skin lesions within 9 days of enrollment was greater in the treatment than in the control group (48% versus 14%, respectively, P < 0.01). Too few patients with existing pressure sores were treated for too short a period of time to assess the effect of low airloss hydrotherapy on pressure sore healing. Because only 10 patients treated on low airloss hydrotherapy beds were able to complete satisfaction surveys meaningfully, interpretation of these data is difficult. Only nine (21%) of 44 nurses subjectively reported overall satisfaction using the low airloss hydrotherapy bed. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the value of a rigorously designed clinically based evaluation of a new product developed for older patients. The results of the study led to re-engineering of the prototype low airloss hydrotherapy bed as well as a change in marketing strategy. Studies of products targeted to the prevention and treatment of pressure sores in older patients should be undertaken before generalized marketing begins.