The prognosis of esophageal carcinoma staged irresectable (T4) by endosonography.
Fockens P. Kisman K. Merkus MP. van Lanschot JJ. Obertop H. Tytgat GN.
Department of Gastroenterology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
BACKGROUND: Endosonography is an accurate preoperative staging technique for esophageal carcinoma. We retrospectively investigated a cohort of patients with carcinoma of the esophagus or gastric cardia that was endosonographically staged to be irresectable and studied whether their survival was influenced by the treatment received. STUDY DESIGN: Between April 1992 and July 1995, 654 patients were referred for endosonographic staging. We retrospectively searched our database for patients staged T4 and collected followup. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards model were used to study the effect of treatment and various other factors on survival. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (median age, 62 years; range, 44-87; 37 male) were staged T4 by endosonography. Followup was collected of all patients. Explorative surgery was chosen in 24 patients (47%), and the tumor was resected in 13 patients. Median survival in the surgical group was 9.67 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.03, 13.31) and 7.06 months (95% CI: 5.68, 8.44) in the nonsurgical group (not significant). Patients with infiltration in the respiratory tract had a 2.5 times higher risk of death than patients without (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.96). CONCLUSIONS: Patients staged irresectable by endosonography (T4 stage) have a very poor prognosis, regardless of further therapy. Survival of this group of patients was not influenced by surgery.
Computed tomography and laparoscopy in the assessment of the patient with pancreatic cancer.
Andren-Sandberg A. Lindberg CG. Lundstedt C. Ihse I.
Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
BACKGROUND: In most patients with pancreatic cancer, the tumor is unresectable. Nonoperative methods for palliation of jaundice, duodenal obstruction, and pain currently are being developed. Preoperative assessment of resectability of the tumor is becoming more and more important to avoid unnecessary operations. The aim of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT) and laparoscopy with special reference to the additive role of the latter technique in predicting unresectability of pancreatic cancers. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer were assessed prospectively with both CT and laparoscopy. On the basis of metastatic spread or signs of vascular involvement, the radiologist and the laparoscopist independently reported the tumors as probably unresectable or resectable. RESULTS: The predictive value for unresectability was 100% for both CT and laparoscopy. Sensitivity in predicting unresectability was 69% for both techniques, and the corresponding figure for specificity was 100%. When CT and laparoscopy were evaluated together, an improvement in sensitivity to 87% was observed (p < 0.05). Separately, CT and laparoscopy correctly predicted resectability in only 30% and 38% of the patients, respectively. The presence of liver metastases was overlooked by CT in 13 of 32 patients (40%). Every fourth patient who was found to have unresectable tumor at CT was falsely classified as resectable by the laparoscopist, leading to unnecessary laparotomies. On the other hand, 9 of 24 patients (38%) with resectable disease at CT were deemed unresectable at the subsequent laparoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy and CT independently and reliably predicted unresectability of pancreatic cancer, but the methods were inaccurate in forecasting resectability. The results suggest that CT examination should be done in patients who are candidates for attempted curative surgical procedures, whereas laparoscopy should be restricted to Those Judged resectable at CT.
Outcomes of extended radical esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer.
Nishimaki T. Suzuki T. Suzuki S. Kuwabara S. Hatakeyama K.
First Department of Surgery, Niigata University School of Medicine, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Great controversy exists concerning the adequate extent of esophagectomy for cure in patients with esophageal cancer. Extended radical esophagectomy combined with three-field lymphadenectomy has been performed to improve the cure rates for patients with the disease in Japan. The purposes of this study were to assess the mortality and morbidity rates after extended radical esophagectomy and to determine the oncologic indications for this procedure. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed 190 patients who underwent extended radical esophagectomy for invasive esophageal cancer. The procedures were performed prospectively between 1982 and 1996. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality, in-hospital mortality, and morbidity rates were 1.6%, 4.7%, and 58.4%, respectively. The most common postoperative complication was vocal-cord paralysis (45.3%), followed by major pulmonary complications (21.6%). The overall survival rate for the 190 patients was 41.5% at 5 years, with a median followup period of 61 months. Some subgroups of patients had an extremely poor prognosis despite extended radical esophagectomy. Survival was < or = 5 years in all patients with five or more positive nodes; all patients with simultaneous metastases to the cervical, mediastinal, and abdominal lymph nodes; and all patients with cervical metastases from a lower esophageal tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Extended radical esophagectomy is potentially associated with high morbidity rates although the mortality rates are acceptable, suggesting the necessity of careful patient selection. This procedure is indicated oncologically only for patients with four or fewer metastatic nodes or with metastases confined to one or two of the three anatomic compartments (neck, mediastinum, and abdomen) from upper or midesophageal tumors.
The utility of polyglycolic acid mesh for abdominal access in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis.
Gentile AT. Feliciano PD. Mullins RJ. Crass RA. Eidemiller LR. Sheppard BC.
Department of Surgery, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, USA.
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing pancreatitis is a poorly understood process that has been treated by a variety of surgical approaches. Despite advances in operative interventions and critical care, this disease often requires prolonged resource allocation and continues to cause substantial morbidity, with mortality rates ranging from 11% to 40%. We report on our recent series of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and our experience with the use of an absorbable mesh in a subset of these patients to facilitate their surgical care. STUDY DESIGN: From 1985 to 1994, 40 patients with culture-proved necrotizing pancreatitis underwent operative debridement and drainage. Surgical outcomes were compared among patients who underwent a single debridement and drainage, those requiring multiple procedures, and those having placement of polyglycolic acid mesh. RESULTS: The overall hospital mortality rate was 30%. The mean length of hospital stay was 35 days. The rate of infected pancreatic necrosis was 60%, with a mortality rate of 45% in patients having infected pancreatic tissue at surgery. Patients without infected pancreatic tissue at surgery had a mortality rate of 6% (p = 0.03). Eleven patients requiring multiple operations had placement of absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh. Clinic followup was possible in five of six survivors who underwent mesh closure. Abdominal-wall hernias developed in two patients and were repaired electively, and three patients had spontaneous closure by granulation without abdominal-wall hernias. The average number of operations for debridement and drainage was 2.5 (range, 1-15). Patients with limited pancreatic necrosis required a single operative debridement and drainage, and this was associated with improved outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Necrotizing pancreatitis remains an important challenge in surgical care. It requires prolonged hospitalization, costly resources, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Our patients with infected pancreatic necrosis or clinical deterioration underwent open staged necrosectomy and debridement. Those patients requiring repeat laparotomy often had placement of polyglycolic acid mesh. This provided open drainage of the abdominal cavity and simplified further care by allowing easy abdominal access for repeat drainage procedures, often performed in the intensive care unit. These patients had a high rate of fistula formation, which may be decreased by changes in wound care. Polyglycolic acid mesh is a useful adjunct in the surgical care of selected patients with necrotizing pancreatitis.
Operative management of papillary cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.
Panieri E. Krige JE. Bornman PC. Graham SM. Terblanche J. Cruse JP.
Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa.
BACKGROUND: Papillary cystic neoplasm (PCN) is a rare malignant tumor of the pancreas that typically occurs in young females and has an excellent prognosis. STUDY DESIGN: We report a retrospective review of 12 patients treated during a 16-year period. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative data were evaluated in all patients to determine optimal management with specific reference to surgical strategy. RESULTS: All 12 tumors occurred in young women (mean age 22 years, range 14-36 years). Six patients presented with an epigastric mass, and three with severe abdominal pain. The correct diagnosis was made preoperatively in only five patients. Incorrect diagnoses included hepatoma, pancreatic pseudocyst, and hydatid cyst. The PCNs had a mean diameter of 12.5 cm (range 8-20 cm), and occurred in the head (four), neck (three), body (three), and tail (two) of the pancreas. All were resected. Operations performed were pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (three), central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy (three), distal pancreatectomy (three), and local resection (three). In one patient two liver metastases were resected in addition to the pancreatic primary. One patient presented with tumor rupture and a major bleed into the lesser sac and died of multiple organ failure after resection. Postoperative complications included a stricture at the hepaticojejunostomy after pancreaticoduodenectomy, which resolved after temporary stenting, and a pancreatic duct fistula after local tumor resection, which required a distal pancreatectomy. Eleven patients are well at followup (mean 6.6 years; range 6 months to 15 years). CONCLUSIONS: PCN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of large pancreatic masses, especially in young females. Conservative resection, where technically feasible, is safe and effective and represents the therapy of choice.
Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernias.
Gantert WA. Patti MG. Arcerito M. Feo C. Stewart L. DePinto M. Bhoyrul S. Rangel S. Tyrrell D. Fujino Y. Mulvihill SJ. Way LW.
Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 94143-0475, USA.
BACKGROUND: Regardless of symptoms, paraesophageal hiatal hernias should be repaired in order to prevent complications. This study reports the University of California San Francisco experience with laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernias, emphasizing the technical steps essential for good results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From May 1993 to September 1997, 55 patients, 27 women and 28 men, with a mean age of 67 years (range, 35-102 years) underwent laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernias at the University of California San Francisco. Symptoms, which had been present an average of 85 months before surgery, consisted mainly of pain (55%), heartburn (52%), dysphagia (45%), and regurgitation (41%). Of the four patients who presented with acute illness, two had gastric obstruction, one had severe dyspnea, and one had gastric bleeding. Endoscopy demonstrated esophagitis in 25 (69%) of 36 patients, and 24-hour pH-monitoring demonstrated acid reflux in 22 (67%) of 33 patients. Manometry detected severely impaired distal esophageal peristalsis in 17 (52%) of 33 patients. The preferred operation consisted of reduction of the hernia, excision of the sack and the gastric fat pad, closure of the enlarged hiatus without mesh, and construction of a fundoplication anchored by sutures within the abdomen. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients, the operations of 49 were completed laparoscopically using the following reconstructions: Guarner (270-degree) fundoplication (30 patients); Nissen fundoplication (10 patients); and gastropexy (9 patients). Five (9%) operations were converted to laparotomies. The average operating time was 219 minutes; the average blood loss was less than 25 mL; resumption of an unrestricted diet, 27 hours; and mean hospital stay, 58 hours. Intraoperative technical complications occurred in five (9%) patients. One patient died during surgery from a sudden pulmonary embolus. Two (4%) patients required a second operation for recurrent paraesophageal hernias. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernias is safe and effective, but the operation is difficult and good results hinge on details of the operative technique and the surgeon's experience. In this series, the crus could always be closed securely without using mesh. We realized early that a fundoplication should be a routine step, because it corrects reflux and is the best method to secure the gastroesophageal junction in the abdomen.
Intraoperative abandonment of ileal pouch to anal anastomosis--the Mayo Clinic experience.
Browning SM. Nivatvongs S.
Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
BACKGROUND: Completion of the ileal pouch to anal anastomosis (IPAA) is neither always possible nor advisable based on intraoperative findings. This study was undertaken to document the incidence of and reasons for intraoperative abandonment of IPAA in a series of over 1,700 attempts. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of the Mayo Clinic surgical index from January 1981 through December 1995. Patients with the preoperative diagnosis of chronic ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis for whom IPAA was planned but not completed are the subject of this report. Comparison is made to patients with a completed IPAA from the Mayo Clinic IPAA registry. RESULTS: During a 15-year period, 1,789 IPAA attempts were made. Intraoperative abandonment occurred in 74 (4.1%). Patients in whom the operation was abandoned were older than patients in whom it was not (38 versus 33 years, p < 0.01), with age older than 40 years conferring a relative risk of 1.87 versus age younger than 40 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.94%). IPAA was abandoned for technical reasons in 32 (43%), intraoperative diagnosis of Crohn's disease in 27 (36%), colorectal cancer in 10 (14%), mesenteric desmoid in 3 (4%), and miscellaneous reasons in 2 (3%) patients. Fifty-one (69%) patients underwent proctocolectomy and ileostomy and 23 (31%) underwent sphincter preserving procedures. Of these, 2 underwent subsequent successful IPAA. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative counseling for IPAA should include discussion of the risk of intraoperative abandonment (4.1%). Older patients are at increased risk. If the IPAA is abandoned for reversible reasons, preservation of the anal sphincter preserves the option of a subsequent IPAA.
Three thousand one hundred seventy-five primary inguinal hernia repairs: advantages of ambulatory open mesh repair using local anesthesia.
Kark AE. Kurzer MN. Belsham PA.
The British Hernia Centre, Hendon, London, United Kingdom.
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists over the relative advantages of open mesh repair compared with open stitching methods and the laparoscopic approach. STUDY DESIGN: Two thousand nine hundred six (2,906) consecutive unselected adult patients underwent 3,175 primary inguinal hernia repairs using polypropylene mesh, under local anesthesia on an ambulatory basis. The age range was 15-92 years. The study specifically investigated the postoperative course with regard to pain, complications, and time of return to work. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths and no cases of urinary retention. Two percent of patients developed a hematoma. The incidence of deep infection was 0.3%. No case of testicular atrophy occurred. Postoperatively 19% of patients used no analgesia at all; 60% used oral analgesics for up to 7 days. There was a gradual decrease in time of return to work over four successive 1-year periods. Manual workers returned to work in 15 days (median) in the first year, reducing to 9 days in the fourth year. The overall median time of return to work across the whole group was 9 days. There were eight recurrences with an 18-month to 5-year followup. CONCLUSIONS: Open mesh repair under local anesthesia is an effective day case technique, particularly in the elderly and medically unfit. The economic benefits are enhanced by low morbidity, early return to normal activities and low recurrence rates.
Density of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer perforation.
Tokunaga Y. Hata K. Ryo J. Kitaoka A. Tokuka A. Ohsumi K.
Department of Surgery, Maizuru Municipal Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.
BACKGROUND: A lack of change in prevalence of severe ulcer complications requiring emergency operation has been reported, despite the common use of histamine-2 (H2)-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors. This may be attributable to use of ulcerogenic drugs or Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, or both. In this study, HP infection was evaluated semiquantitatively in patients with peptic ulcer who required surgery, and the severity of histologic change was investigated. METHODS: We reviewed a total of 113 consecutive patients (98 men and 15 women) operated on for perforation, hemorrhage, or stenosis of gastroduodenal ulcer between January 1986 and December 1995. Detection of HP was carried out by immunohistochemical staining. We graded the density of HP infection according to the number of individual HP bacteria counted in a highly magnified visual field (x 1,000 of light microscopy). The grade of HP infection was defined as follows: (0) = 0; (1+) = 1-9; (2+) = 10-29; (3+) = 30-99; (4+) > or = 100. The severity of gastritis was evaluated by histologic examination using the criteria of Rauws. RESULTS: Although the number of operations for gastroduodenal ulcer declined significantly, the rate of emergency operation for gastroduodenal ulcer increased from 60% to 90%, with the result that the frequency of operations for perforation or bleeding remained virtually constant and that for stenosis significantly decreased. HP infection was more prevalent in perforated ulcer (92%) than hemorrhagic ulcer (55%) or stenotic ulcer (45%). The grades of HP infection were 3.0 +/- 0.14 (mean +/- SEM) in perforated ulcer, 2.3 +/- 0.34 in hemorrhagic ulcer, and 2.5 +/- 0.22 in stenotic ulcer. Perforated ulcer was associated with significantly more severe HP infection and gastritis changes than hemorrhagic ulcer or stenotic ulcer. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that patients with perforated ulcer were infected with HP more severely than those with hemorrhagic ulcer or stenotic ulcer at the time of surgery. A close relationship was observed between the perforated ulcer and the density of HP infection determined semiquantitatively using immunohistochemical stain.
Minardi AJ Jr. Zibari GB. Aultman DF. McMillan RW. McDonald JC.
Department of Surgery, Louisiana State University Medical Center-Shreveport, 71130, USA.
BACKGROUND: The rarity, delayed presentation, and diagnostic difficulty of small-bowel tumors prompted this study. STUDY DESIGN: Charts were reviewed retrospectively for 85 patients with 89 small-bowel tumors (22 primary malignant, 23 primary benign, and 44 metastatic) over a 10-year period (1986-1996) at Louisiana State University Medical Center-Shreveport and two affiliated hospitals in Shreveport. RESULTS: Of the primary malignant tumors, 10 carcinoids and 11 duodenal adenocarcinomas were identified. Most primary benign tumors were adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps, diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Metastatic tumors accounted for nearly 50% of all small-bowel tumors. Across all three tumor types, the most common presenting signs and symptoms were abdominal pain and nausea and vomiting. In addition, patients with benign tumors were more commonly presented with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and those with metastatic tumors were more likely to present with obstruction. The mean interval from the onset of signs and symptoms to operation was 54 days for primary malignant tumors and 330 days for primary benign tumors. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography of the abdomen were occasionally helpful in diagnosis. Among the 22 primary malignant tumors, curative resections were performed in 11 patients (for 9 carcinoids and 2 adenocarcinomas) and palliative resections were performed in 10 patients (for 9 adenocarcinomas and 1 myxoliposarcoma). One patient had carcinomatosis from colon cancer and an incidentally discovered ileal carcinoid; this carcinoid was not included in this group of resections for primary malignant small-bowel tumors. All operations for 39 (of 44) patients with metastatic tumors were palliative. The remaining 5 (of 44) patients had metastatic duodenal cancer (confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with biopsy) and did not undergo laparotomy. Surgical complications occurred more commonly with metastatic than with primary malignant tumors. Patients with primary malignant tumors had a 5-year survival rate of 36%. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that small-bowel tumors are difficult to diagnose because of delayed presentation, nonspecific signs and symptoms, and lack of accurate diagnostic studies. If the overall survival of patients with small-bowel tumors is to be improved, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion and be willing to perform exploratory celiotomy early.
The Malone antegrade continence enema procedure in the management of patients with spina bifida.
Hensle TW. Reiley EA. Chang DT.
Department of Urology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
BACKGROUND: In patients with spina bifida, traditional bowel management programs such as suppositories, retrograde enemas, and manual disimpaction have been largely unsatisfactory. The Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure has largely changed our approach to bowel management in this patient group. STUDY DESIGN: Over a 3-year period between January 1994 and January 1997, 27 patients with spina bifida underwent the Malone ACE procedure at our institutions. At the time of their ACE procedure, four patients underwent simultaneous continent urinary diversion and three had simultaneous small-bowel bladder augmentation. All the patients were evaluated for 9 months or more after their procedure, and 10 of the patients have been followed for more than 2 years. RESULTS: Postoperatively, predictable bowel control and continence were achieved in 19 of the 27 patients, but 6 had some rectal soiling requiring a sanitary pad. All patients were out of diapers and none reported stomal leakage. Eighteen of the 27 patients were able to manage independently and 9 required assistance. Two patients had stopped using their ACE stoma despite good technical results. The appendix was used as a catheterizable stoma in 15 of the 27 patients. The appendix was not available in 12 patients, so a tubularized cecal flap was used in 9 and a small-bowel neoappendix was created in 3. Complications included stomal stenosis in 5 patients, cecal-flap necrosis in 1, and stomal granulations in 3. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the ACE procedure provides reliable colonic emptying and avoids fecal soiling in the majority of individuals, and we find it widely and enthusiastically accepted by patients with spina bifida.
The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in pancreatic and periampullary malignancies.
Friess H. Kleeff J. Silva JC. Sadowski C. Baer HU. Buchler MW.
Department of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Bern, Inselpital, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy before laparotomy in patients with pancreatic or periampullary malignancies remains controversial. We analyzed the value of using diagnostic laparoscopy to avoid laparotomy in these patients. STUDY DESIGN: Between November 1993 and December 1996, 254 patients with pancreatic or periampullary malignancies were treated. In 74 patients, multiple distant metastases precluded further surgical treatment. In all, 180 patients underwent laparotomy for pancreatic cancer (119 patients) or periampullary cancer (61 patients). Preoperatively, all patients underwent computed tomography for staging and to assess resectability of the tumor. Based on the results of the imaging procedure, the patients were scheduled for either tumor resection or a palliative operation. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 180 patients (12%) with pancreatic or periampullary malignancies were scheduled preoperatively for nonresectional operations because of distant metastasis or retroperitoneal tumor infiltration. In none of these patients was the operative strategy changed. In 159 of 180 patients (88%), a pancreatic resection was planned preoperatively; 119 patients underwent pancreatic resection. In the remaining 40 patients preoperatively scheduled for tumor resection, removal of the tumor was not possible. In 24, this resulted from tumor infiltration into the retropancreatic vessels, and in 16 it resulted from liver or peritoneal metastasis detected for the first time intraoperatively. These 16 patients (10%) could have benefited from diagnostic laparoscopy. Similar results were found in the subgroup of 119 patients with pancreatic cancer, of whom 102 were planned for tumor resection and 17 for palliative operation. Of the 102 patients planned preoperatively for tumor resection, 71 patients (70%) underwent pancreatic resection. In the remaining 31 patients scheduled for tumor resection, removal of the tumor was not possible: in 17 because of tumor infiltration into the retropancreatic vessels and in 14 because of liver or peritoneal metastasis detected for the first time intraoperatively. These 14 patients (14%) also would have benefited from laparoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative computed tomography is a reliable technique to detect tumor metastasis in patients with pancreatic or periampullary cancer. Unlike other investigators, we found that only 10% of patients with periampullary or pancreatic cancer and 14% of patients with pancreatic cancer might profit from laparoscopy. Because of this low number, laparoscopy cannot generally be recommended for patients with pancreatic or periampullary cancer before laparotomy.
Standardized perioperative care protocols and reduced length of stay after colon surgery.
Bradshaw BG. Liu SS. Thirlby RC.
Department of Anesthesia, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98111, USA.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that critical pathways and standard order sets decrease hospital length of stay and improve quality of care. A recently conducted prospective, randomized study at our institution found that patients undergoing elective colon resections had earlier return of bowel function if perioperative epidural anesthesia and analgesia were provided. All patients in the study were also placed on a standardized perioperative regimen. We hypothesized that the standardized perioperative protocol used in this study contributed to early return of bowel function and hospital discharge compared with similar patients managed off protocol. STUDY DESIGN: To test this hypothesis, we performed a case-controlled study comparing the hospital courses of 36 study patients to 36 control patients undergoing colorectal surgery by the same surgeons during the same calendar year. The distribution of types of operations and anesthetic techniques was similar in both groups. RESULTS: As dictated by the protocol, all study patients had their nasogastric tubes removed, were started on a low fat liquid diet, and ambulated in the first postoperative day. Nasogastric tubes were removed in control patients and study patients 2.2 +/- 0.9 (mean value +/- SD) and 1.0 +/- 0.0 days postoperatively, respectively. Control patients were started on an oral diet, usually clear liquids, an average of 2.9 +/- 1.1 days postoperatively, a specific liquid diet was started 1.0 day postoperatively in study patients (p < 0.001). Return of bowel function, as determined by bowel tones, flatus, and bowel movements, occurred approximately 1 day earlier in study patients. Study patients were discharged 1 day sooner than control patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the return of bowel function and the length of stay of patients undergoing colon surgery are improved if patients are entered into a standardized protocol that eliminates variation in intraoperative and postoperative anesthesia and postoperative surgical care. We believe these results can be reproduced in routine clinical surgery by having a clearly outlined protocol for perioperative care similar to that used in this study.
Management of pancreatic pseudocysts.
Spivak H. Galloway JR. Amerson JR. Fink AS. Branum GD. Redvanly RD. Richardson WS. Mauren SJ. Waring JP. Hunter JG.
Department of Surgery, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
BACKGROUND: Operative internal drainage has been standard treatment for chronic unresolved pancreatic pseudocysts (PPs). Recently, percutaneous external drainage (PED) has become the primary mode of treatment at many medical centers. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was performed of 96 patients with PPs who were managed between 1987 and 1996. Longterm followup information was obtained by telephone and mail questionnaire. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients underwent computed tomographic (CT)-guided PED. PP resolution occurred in 17 patients. Clinical deterioration or secondary infection mandated urgent pancreatic debridement in 7 (26%) patients and cystgastrostomy in 2 (7%) patients. There was one hospital death in this group. Thirty-two patients underwent cystgastrostomy or cystjejunostomy (n = 21), distal pancreatectomy (n = 8), pancreatic debridement and external drainage (n = 2), or cystectomy (n = 1). Two (6%) patients required postoperative pancreatic debridement for failure of resolution and peritonitis and two patients underwent PED of abscess. There was one hospital death in the expectantly managed group of 37 patients. Median followup of 3 years (range, 0.5-9.3 years) in 66 patients revealed that 6, 3, and 4 patients of PED, surgery, and expectantly managed groups, respectively, had radiologic evidence of recurrent PPs. CONCLUSIONS: Operative management for PPs appears to be superior to CT-guided PED. Although the later was often successful, it required major salvage procedures in one third of the patients. An expectant management protocol may be suitable for selected patients.
Role of adhesion molecule expression and soluble fractions in hepatic resection.
Shimada M. Kajiyama K. Hasegawa H. Gion T. Ikeda Y. Shirabe K. Takenaka K. Sugimachi K.
Second Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Little has so far been documented about the relationship between liver injury and adhesion molecules. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of adhesion molecules in hepatic resection by studying both the expression of such adhesion molecules and the measurement of their soluble fractions in the blood. STUDY DESIGN: To study adhesion molecule expression in the liver, liver biopsies were obtained before and after hepatectomy in 14 patients. Using frozen sections, immunochemical staining for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was then performed. To study the soluble fractions of adhesion molecules in the hepatic venous blood, the serum soluble fractions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 from another 17 patients were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plasma levels of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) elastase were also measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Both the preoperative and postoperative values of the serum soluble fractions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and PMN elastase were then compared. The correlation between their values and the perioperative variables was also investigated. RESULTS: Either ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 was stained on the sinusoidal endothelial cells and Kupffer cells or circulating PMNs in the sinusoid. The positive rate of either ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 staining in livers with more than 40 minutes of total ischemic time (80%) was significantly higher than that in livers with less than 40 minutes of total ischemic time (0%; p < 0.05). The incidence of postoperative complications in the ICAM-1 positive staining group tended to be higher than that in the ICAM-1 negative group. Both soluble fractions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in patients with cirrhotic liver disease were also significantly higher than those in patients with a normal liver. The soluble VCAM-1 level in patients with a chronic active hepatitic liver tended to be higher than that in those with a nonactive hepatitic liver. The preoperative level of soluble ICAM-1 correlated with that ofVCAM- 1, PMN elastase, albumin, aspartate aminotransferease (AST), and the indocyanine green dye retention test at 15 minutes (ICG R15), while the preoperative level of VCAM-1 correlated with albumin, the hepaplastin test, AST, and ICG R15. Both the serum soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels after hepatectomy were significantly lower than those before hepatectomy. By contrast, the posthepatectomy level of PMN elastase was significantly higher than its prehepatectomy level. The difference between the postoperative and preoperative values of soluble ICAM-1 correlated with the postoperative AST level, postoperative alanine aminotransferase level, and total ischemic time. CONCLUSIONS: Adhesion molecules were expressed in the liver after hepatic resection, and such expression correlated with a total ischemic time during hepatectomy. In addition, judging from the soluble forms of such molecules, these adhesion molecules play an important role in hepatic resection.
Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: a metaanalysis.
Golub R. Siddiqui F. Pohl D.
Department of Surgery, The New York Flushing Hospital, 11355, USA.
BACKGROUND: There have been numerous retrospective and uncontrolled series of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), as well as 16 prospective randomized studies published to date. Although most of these have concluded that the laparoscopic technique is as least as good as open appendectomy (OA), there has been considerable controversy as to whether LA is superior. To help clarify this issue, we performed a metaanalysis of the randomized prospective studies. STUDY DESIGN: A metaanalysis of all formally randomized prospective trials of LA versus OA in adults. RESULTS: A total of 1,682 patients were analyzed. When compared with OA, LA results in significantly less postoperative pain, earlier resumption of solid foods, a shorter hospital stay, and a faster return to normal activities. The wound infection rate in the LA patients is less than one half the rate in patients undergoing OA. LA, however, requires longer operating times and the incidence of intraabdominal abscess is higher, but this failed to reach statistical significance. There were no differences in complications or hospital charges. CONCLUSIONS: LA offers considerable advantages over OA, primarily because of its ability to reduce the incidence of wound infections and shorten recovery times. Its widespread acceptance should be considered. The trend toward increased intraabdominal abscess formation is worrisome, however, and demands further investigation.
The evolution and maturation of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an academic practice.
Wu JS. Dunnegan DL. Luttmann DR. Soper NJ.
Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
BACKGROUND: The technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has evolved since its adoption in the late 1980s. We sought to document these changes and assess whether patient outcomes were influenced during this maturational process. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective data base was used to record the outcomes of all LCs performed in an academic surgeon's practice. Trends over time among 1,165 consecutive patients were assessed by comparing the first 100 LCs (group I), the middle 100 LCs (group II), and the most recent 100 LCs (group III). RESULTS: During a 93-month period with 1,165 patients undergoing LC, 25 procedures (2.1%) were converted to open cholecystectomy. Perioperative complications occurred in 31 patients (3%): grade I in 9 (0.8%), grade II in 16 (1.4%), grade III in 5 (0.4%), and grade IV (death) in 1 (0.1%). Length of hospital stay and convalescence were 1.1 +/- 0.1 and 9.5 +/- 0.5 days, respectively. Nineteen patients (2%) were readmitted early after operation and 10 (1%) developed long-term complications (port-site hernia or retained stone). In group III, cholangiography was largely replaced by intraoperative ultrasonography for ductal evaluation. Operating room time decreased, while the rates of conversion, morbidity, and readmission remained the same. Patients had higher ASA classifications in the latter two groups, whereas operative charges were greater in Group III than in Groups I and II. These trends occurred even though most procedures are currently performed by residents, and fewer LCs are being done. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has matured into a more efficient operation, yet remains safe with low morbidity when performed by residents at an academic institution.
Stage I rectal cancer: identification of high-risk patients.
Blumberg D. Paty PB. Picon AI. Guillem JG. Klimstra DS. Minsky BD. Quan SH. Cohen AM.
Department of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
BACKGROUND: Stage I rectal cancer (T1, T2 N0) is currently treated by surgical resection alone. Despite adequate surgical resection, approximately 10-15% of patients will develop recurrence. Identification of patients at high risk for recurrence could potentially lead to an improvement in outcome by selection of these patients for adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Between June 1986 and September 1996, 211 patients with primary rectal cancer (stage I) were treated by radical surgical resection alone. The medical data of all patients were entered into a database and prospectively followed. The following 10 prognostic factors were correlated with recurrence and tumor-related mortality: patient factors: age, gender, and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level; tumor factors: location from the anal verge (< 6 cm vs. > or = 6 cm), T stage (T1 vs. T2), intratumoral blood vessel invasion (BVI), intratumoral lymphatic vessel invasion, presence of tumor ulceration, and histologic differentiation; and treatment-related factors: extent of surgical resection--abdominal perineal resection versus low anterior resection. Univariate analysis of the effect of the prognostic factors on recurrence and tumor-related mortality were performed by the method of Kaplan-Meier and log rank test. Independent prognostic factors were determined by a multivariate analysis performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The overall 5-year actuarial recurrence was 12% and tumor-related mortality was 10%. Independent predictors of recurrence were male gender and BVI. Independent predictors of tumor-related mortality were male gender, BVI, and poorly differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite radical resection, patients with stage I rectal cancer with male gender, BVI, and poorly differentiated tumors should be considered high-risk patients.