Characterization of MLH1 and MSH2 alternative splicing and its relevance to molecular testing of colorectal cancer susceptibility.
Genuardi M. Viel A. Bonora D. Capozzi E. Bellacosa A. Leonardi F. Valle R. Ventura A. Pedroni M. Boiocchi M. Neri G.
Istituto di Genetica Medica, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.
The phenomenon of alternative splicing in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1 and MSH2 was extensively investigated by coupled reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in different human tissues, including 42 mononuclear blood cell samples--31 obtained from familial colon cancer patients or their at-risk relatives and 11 from healthy blood donors--7 normal colonic mucosae, 4 established human cancer cell lines, 8 colorectal tumors, and one sample each of ileum, liver, muscle, thymus, breast, and EBV-transformed lymphoblasts. Several isoforms were observed for each gene. Products of MLH1 alternative splicing included mRNAs lacking alternative exons 6/9, 9, 9/10, 9/10/11, 10/11, 12, 16, and 17. For MSH2, products lacking exons 5, 13, 2 through 7, and 2 through 8 were identified. The levels of expression were found to vary among different samples. All isoforms were found in a relevant fraction (43-100%) of the mononuclear blood cell samples, as well as in other tissues. The splicing variants were also detected in normal colonic mucosa, with the exceptions of the MLH1 -6/9 and -10/11 and the MSH2 -13 isoforms. Germline mutations of MLH1 and MSH2 confer constitutional predisposition to the development of colorectal cancer and other neoplasms. A substantial proportion of the mutations identified so far involve alterations of the normal splicing process. Knowledge of the existence of multiple alternative splicing events, not caused by genomic DNA changes, is important for the evaluation of the results of molecular diagnostic tests based on RNA analysis.
Localization of the gene responsible for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome within a 6-cM region of chromosome 19p13.3.
Nakagawa H. Koyama K. Tanaka T. Miyoshi Y. Ando H. Baba S. Watatani M. Yasutomi M. Monden M. Nakamura Y.
Department of Clinical Genetics, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.
Patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), an autosomal dominant disease characterized by hamartomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, are thought to be predisposed to malignancies of the digestive tract, genital tract, and other organs. Using microsatellite markers on chromosome 19p, we have closely defined the region containing the gene responsible for this disorder through linkage analysis in seven affected families. The lack of obligate recombinants at two of these loci, D19S883 and D19S878, with maximum LOD scores of 2.88 and 3.75, confirmed the localization of the PJS locus to chromosome 19. Furthermore, haplotype analysis placed the PJS locus within a 6-cM telomeric region of chromosome 19p, between D19S886 and D19S565.
Analysis of the CFTR gene in Turkish cystic fibrosis patients: identification of three novel mutations (3172delAC, P1013L and M1028I).
Onay T. Topaloglu O. Zielenski J. Gokgoz N. Kayserili H. Camcioglu Y. Cokugras H. Akcakaya N. Apak M. Tsui LC. Kirdar B.
Bogazici University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul, Turkey.
In order to determine the spectrum of cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations in the Turkish population, a complete coding region of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene including exon-intron boundaries, on 122 unrelated CF chromosomes from 73 Turkish CF families was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and multiplex heteroduplex analysis on MDE gel matrix. In addition to 15 previously reported mutations and 12 polymorphisms, three novel mutations, namely 3172delAC, P1013L and M1028I, were detected. DeltaF508 was found to be present on 18.8% of CF chromosomes. The second most common mutation was 1677delTA, with a frequency of 7.3%, followed by G542X and 2183AA-->G mutations, with frequencies of 4.9%. These four most common mutations in Turkish CF population account for approximately 36% of mutations. This study could only detect 52.5% of disease-causing mutations in this population; 47.5% of CF alleles remain to be identified, reflecting the high molecular heterogeneity of the Turkish population.
Polarity of mutations in tumor-associated microsatellite instability.
Sturzeneker R. Haddad LA. Bevilacqua RA. Simpson AJ. Pena SD.
Departamento de Bioquimica e Immunologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas-U. F. M. G., Belor Hirozonte, MG, Brazil.
Many factors have been implicated in influencing the rate of microsatellite mutations, including the length and base composition of the repeat motif, number of repeats, base composition of flanking sequences and, perhaps most importantly, degree of perfection of the repeats. The latter is of clinical relevance, since in both spino-cerebellar ataxia and fragile X syndrome, alleles with imperfect repeats appear to be much more stable than perfect ones. As yet, the relative importance of increased replication slippage and decreased mismatch repair efficiency in the preference of mutations to occur within perfect repeats has not been fully determined. D13S308E is an asymmetric trinucleotide repeat microsatellite with the sequence (CAT)3CAC(CAT)CAC(CAT)2CAC(CAT)CAC(CAT)15, thus containing two parts: an 11-repeat imperfect portion (underlined above) and a 15-repeat perfect one (bold). We sequenced eight new mutant alleles of D13S308E from three human gastric tumors with instability in this and other microsatellites. In all mutations the size variation occurred exclusively in the perfect part of the microsatellite. These results constitute direct evidence that the molecular basis of microsatellite alterations seen in normal cells is similar to those that occur in human tumors with extensive microsatellite instability. The investigation of mechanisms involved in microsatellite mutations has been handicapped by the fact that they are rare events. The microsatellite instability observed in malignant tumors provides us with a useful general system to study these mechanisms.
Familial mitochondrial DNA depletion in liver: haplotype analysis of candidate genes.
Spelbrink JN. Van Galen MJ. Zwart R. Bakker HD. Rovio A. Jacobs HT. Van den Bogert C.
Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Two sons and one daughter of healthy consanguineous parents presented with fatal hepatic failure in association with severe depletion of mitochondrial (mt)DNA in liver; a third son is healthy. Other published cases of mtDNA depletion concern single members of a family, which excludes the use of haplotype analysis. In the family presented here, the inheritance of the genes for mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSBP), and endonuclease G (EndoG) was studied using microsatellite markers linked to these genes. The inheritance of the gene for mtDNA polymerase (pol gamma) was studied using a polymorphic CAG repeat present within the coding region of the gene. EndoG and mtSSBP were excluded, but mtTFA remains a candidate. Pol gamma or NRF-1 involvement would be compatible only with autosomal dominant inheritance. Coding sequence analysis of NRF-1 and mtTFA revealed no novel mutations in affected individuals.