Extrahepatic portal hypertension following liver transplantation: a rare but challenging problem.
Malassagne B. Soubrane O. Dousset B. Legmann P. Houssin D.
Clinique Chirurgicale, Hopital Cochin, Paris.
This study reports our experience of 8 cases of extrahepatic portal hypertension after 273 orthotopic liver transplantations in 244 adult patients over a 10-year period. The main clinical feature was ascites, and the life-threatening complication was variceal bleeding. Extrahepatic portal hypertension was caused by portal vein stenosis in 6 patients, and left-sided portal hypertension in 2 patients after inadventent ligation of portal venous tributaries or portasystemic shunts. All patients with portal vein stenosis had complete relief of portal hypertension after percutaneous transhepatic venoplasty (n = 4) or surgical reconstruction (n = 2), after a median follow-up of 33 (range: 6-62) months. Of the 2 patients with left-sided portal hypertension, one died after splenectomy and one rebled 6 months after left colectomy. This study suggests that extrahepatic portal hypertension is a series complication after liver transplantation that could be prevented by meticulous portal anastomosis and closure of portal tributaries or portasystemic shunts to improve the portal venous flow. However, any ligation has to be performed under ultrasound guidance to avoid inadventent venous ligations.
Portal decompression using the inferior mesenteric vein.
Gorini P. Johansen K.
Departments of Surgery, Ospedale Borselli, Ferrara, Italy.
We report five patients with variceal hemorrhage, in three cases secondary to diffuse thrombosis of the portal, superior mesenteric and splenic veins. Mesenteric angiography demonstrated patency of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) in each, and successful portal decompression by anastomosis of the IMV to the left renal vein (n = 4) or the inferior vena cava (n = 1) was accomplished. Bleeding was permanently controlled: four patients have survived from one to eight years post-operatively. Because shunt procedures utilizing the IMV are technically straightforward, subtotally decompress the portal system and avoid the right upper quadrant, they may be advantageous in certain clinical settings.
External biliary fistula.
Dadoukis J. Prousalidis J. Botsios D. Tzartinoglou E. Apostolidis S. Papadopoulos V. Aletras H.
4th Surgical Clinic, School of Medicine, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
We report 210 cases of external biliary fistula treated in our clinics between 1970-1992. In 7 cases, fistulas were formed after iatrogenic bile duct injury, in 4 cases after exploration of common bile duct, in 4 cases due to disruption of biliary-intestinal anastomosis, and in 2 cases due to liver trauma. In 85 cases bile leak was observed after cholecystomy, in 103 cases after hydatid disease surgery, and in 4 cases after the passage of P.T.C. catheter. In one patient the appearance of the fistula was due to spontaneous discharge of a gallbladder empyema. 173 cases were managed conservatively, and 37 cases surgically.
Cystic dilation of extrahepatic bile ducts in adulthood: diagnosis, surgical treatment and long-term results.
Belli G. Rotondano G. D'Agostino A. Iannelli A. Marano I. Santangelo ML.
Department of General Surgery & Organ Transplantation, University of Naples Federico II, School of Medicine, Italy.
To evaluate the long-term results of surgery for choledohal cyst in adulthood, a series of 13 patients over the age of 16 operated on for choledochal cyst during a period of six years and followed-up for a minimum of 3 years was analyzed. Patients with type I and IVa cysts underwent extrahepatic cyst resection and Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy. Choledochoceles (type III) were managed endoscopically. No operative mortality or morbidity occurred. Type I and III cysts showed almost ideal follow-up with no sign of stricture on HIDA scan. One type IVa cyst patients developed recurrent cholangitis due to anastomotic stricture, managed percutaneously. Whenever possible, complete cyst resection and Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the treatment of choice for all extrahepatic biliary cysts. Intra- and extrahepatic dilatations are adequately treated by extrahepatic resection and careful endoscopic or radiologic surveillance. Small choledochoceles can be safely managed by endoscopic sphincterotomy.
Surgical treatment for biliary carcinoma arising after pancreatoduodenectomy.
Seki H. Miyagawa S. Kobayashi A. Kawasaki S.
First Department of Surgery, Shinshu University, School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.
The clinicopathological features and surgical treatment of biliary carcinoma around the major hepatic duct confluence arising after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) due to initial bile duct carcinoma are described in three patients. Occurrence of biliary carcinoma more than 12 years after initial surgery and a histological finding of cholangiocellular carcinoma mixed with hepatocellular carcinoma suggested metachronous incidence of biliary carcinoma after PD. Extended right hemihepatectomy with complete removal of the residual extrahepatic bile duct and segmental resection of the jejunal loop were carried out safely without operative death or severe postoperative complications. Two patients died of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery, and the remaining patient is currently living a normal life without evidence of recurrence 17 months after surgery. These surgical procedures are a therapeutic option in patients with biliary carcinoma around the major hepatic duct confluence arising after PD.
Is chemoembolisation of value in inoperable primary hepatocellular carcinoma.
Centre E Marquis, France.
Chemoembolisation has been extensively used as primary treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this unit, 185 patients with a new diagnosis of HCC not amenable to surgery were seen between 1988 and 1991. Intended therapy for these patients was chemoembolisation with doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) and lipiodol, repeated at six week intervals until it was technically no longer possible or until complete tumour response had been obtained. Chemoembolisation was possible in 67 of the 185 (37%). Reasons for exclusion were portal vein occlusion (n = 36), decompensated cirrhosis (n = 44), distant metastases (n = 5), diffuse tumour or unsuitable anatomy (tumour or vasculature) (n = 11), patient refusal (n = 11), and other (n = 11). Patients excluded from treatment survived for a median of 10 weeks (range 3 days-19 months). In patients treated, 18 had small HCC (4 cm) and 49 had large or multifocal HCC. Chemoembolisation was carried out a median of two sessions for small and three sessions for large tumours. Ten of 18 patients with small HCC showed a 50% or greater reduction in tumour size. Five of 49 patients with large or multifocal tumours showed a response to treatment. Median overall survival for treated patients was 36 weeks (range 3 days-4 years). One patient has subsequently undergone liver transplantation with no recurrence and minimal residual disease at transplantation. Two other patients are alive three years after chemoembolisation, one with no evidence of recurrent disease. No patient was thought suitable for surgery after their response to chemoembolisation. Chemotherapy related complications were seen in 22%. Complications were significantly more common in patients with larger tumours and poor liver reserve. Five patients died as a result of chemotherapy related complications. In conclusion, only one third of UK patients with unresectable HCC are treatable by chemoembolisation. Results with small tumours are encouraging, with a high response rate and the possibility of surgical intervention in previously inoperable disease. Large tumours, however, show a poor response and significant incidence of side effects, suggesting that this treatment offers little benefit in advanced disease.
Bile duct calculi--the new challenges.
Department of Surgery, University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Denver 80220, USA.
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality after surgical treatment of bileduct stones increase with age and associated diseases. A proposed alternative therapy is endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with the gallbladder left in situ, and we elected to compare this option with standard open surgery in high-risk patients. METHODS: 98 patients (mean age 80 years) with symptoms likely to be due to bileduct stones or a recent episode of biliary pancreatitis were randomised to be treated either by open cholecystectomy with operative cholangiography and (if necessary) bileduct exploration (n = 48) or by endoscopic sphincterotomy alone (n = 50). FINDINGS: The procedure was accomplished successfully in 94% of the surgery group and 88% of the ES group, and there were no significant differences in immediate morbidity (23% vs 16%) or mortality (4% vs 6%). During mean follow-up of 17 months biliary symptoms recurred in three surgical patients, none of whom underwent repeat surgery, and in 10 ES patients, seven of whom had biliary surgery. By multivariate regression analysis endoscopic sphincterotomy was an independent predictor of recurrent biliary symptoms (odds ratio 6.9; 95% Cl 1.46 to 32.54). INTERPRETATION: In elderly or high-risk patients, surgery is preferably to endoscopic sphincterotomy with the gallbladder left in situ as a definitive treatment for bileduct stones or non-severe biliary pancreatitis.
Changing therapy for gastrinoma.
Bornman PC. radebold K.
Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Medical School, South Africa.
OBJECTIVE: The author analyzed potential survival determinants in gastrinoma to characterize a possible uniform staging system and to determine whether complete surgical resection improves expected survival. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Gastrinoma is an indolent yet malignant neuroendocrine tumor. The associated gastric acid hypersecretion can be controlled medically. Staging of gastrinoma is inconsistent and the role of surgical resection controversial. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with gastrinoma with a minimum 5-year follow-up were assessed. Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the association of risk factors with survival. RESULTS: The following factors had no effect on survival: age at diagnosis, sex, presence of lymph node metastases, associated multiple endocrine neoplasia, and method of ulcer treatment. The three unique determinants of survival were primary tumor size (relative risk, 1.534; p = 0.0005), liver metastases (relative risk, 2.947; p = 0.0209), and complete surgical resection (relative risk, 0.163; p = 0.0076). On the basis of these risk factors, a uniform staging system is proposed and predictive survival curves developed. CONCLUSIONS: The primary determinants of survival in gastrinoma are the size of the primary tumor and liver metastases. Complete surgical resection reduces mortality, regardless of other factors.
Small-diameter PTFE portosystemic shunts: portocaval vs mesocaval.
Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Fifty-seven patients with failed sclerotherapy received a mesocaval interposition shunt with an externally supported, ringed polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis of either 10 or 12 mm diameter. Thirty-one patients had Child-Pugh grade A disease and 26 grade B; all had a liver volume of 1000-2500 ml. Follow-up ranged from 16 months to 6 years 3 months. Three patients (5 per cent) died in the postoperative period. There were two postoperative recurrences of variceal haemorrhage and one recurrent bleed in the second year after surgery. The cumulative shunt patency rate was 95 per cent and the incidence of encephalopathy 9 per cent; the latter was successfully managed by protein restriction and/or lactulose therapy. The actuarial survival rate for the whole group at 6 years was 78 per cent, for those with Child-Pugh grade A 88 per cent and for grade B 67 per cent. Small-lumen mesocaval interposition shunting achieves portal decompression, preserves hepatopetal flow, has a low incidence of shunt thrombosis, prevents recurrent variceal bleeding and is not associated with significant postoperative encephalopathy.
Resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Washington School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Morbidity and mortality involved in the resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. The clinicopathologic and laboratory parameters that might influence the patient's survival also were re-evaluated. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although much progress has been made in the diagnosis and management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, long-term outlook for most patients remains poor. Surgical resection is usually prohibited because of its local invasiveness, and most patients can only be managed by palliative drainage. Recently, many surgeons have adopted a more aggressive resection with varying degrees of success. Several prognostic factors in bile duct carcinoma have been proposed; however, no reports have specifically focused on resected hilar cholangiocarcinoma and its prognostic survival factors using multivariate analysis. METHODS: The clinical records and pathologic slides of 49 cases with resected hilar cholangiocarcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated for their correlation with postoperative morbidity and mortality, whereas 31 variables were evaluated for their significance with postoperative survival. Variables showing statistical significance in the first univariate analysis were included in the following multivariate analysis using stepwise logistic regression test for factors affecting morbidity and mortality and Cox stepwise proportional hazard model for factors influencing survival. RESULTS: There were 5 in-hospital deaths, and the cumulative 5-year survival rate in 44 patients who survived was 14.9%, with a median survival of 14.0 months. Multivariate analysis disclosed that coexistent hepatolithiasis and lower serum aspartate aminotransferase levels (90 U/L) had a significant low incidence of postoperative morbidity, whereas a serum albumin of less than 3 g/dL was the only significant factor affecting mortality. Regarding survival, univariate analysis identified eight significant factors: 1) total bilirubin 10 mg/dL, 2) curative resection, 3) histologic type, 4) perineural invasion, 5) liver invasion, 6) depth of cancer invasion, 7) positive proximal resected margin, and 8) positive surgical margin. However, multivariate analysis disclosed total bilirubin > or = mg/dL, curative resection, and histologic type as the three most significant independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection provides the best survival for bilar cholangiocarcinoma. An adequate nutritional support to increase serum albumin over 3 g/dL is the most important factor to decrease postoperative mortality. Moreover, preoperative biliary drainage to decrease jaundice and a curative resection with adequate surgical margin are recommended if longer survival is anticipated. Patients with well differentiated adenocarcinoma seem to survive longer compared to those with moderately or poorly differentiated tumors.