Potential pro-inflammatory effects of soluble E-selectin upon neutrophil function.
Ruchaud-Sparagano MH. Drost EM. Donnelly SC. Bird MI. Haslett C. Dransfield I.
Respiratory Medicine Unit, University of Edinburgh Medical School, GB.
Appropriate recruitment of neutrophils to sites of infection or tissue injury is a key event in the inflammatory response. A number of studies have shown the critical role of selectins in tethering and rolling of neutrophils on vascular endothelium, as well as a more complex regulatory role, since they have the potential to alter leukocyte recruitment by triggering beta2 integrin-mediated adhesion. In this study, we report that in contrast to patients "at risk" of developing acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), elevated plasma levels of soluble E-selectin are found in patients with established disease. Since neutrophil granulocytes are implicated in ARDS pathogenesis, we have investigated the possibility of a link between elevated soluble plasma E-selectin levels and disease progression by examining the effects of soluble recombinant E-selectin (E-zz) upon neutrophil function. In this paper, we describe the novel finding that exposure of neutrophils to E-zz potentiates a number of neutrophil functions which may act to drive inflammatory processes. Although neutrophil deformability, an important parameter determining retention within the lung microvasculature, was not affected by E-zz, neutrophil polarization was observed. In addition, neutrophil beta2 integrin-mediated adhesion was found to be augmented by E-zz without alteration in levels of surface expression of alphaMbeta2 or the "activation" reporter epitope defined by monoclonal antibody 24. Concomitantly with increased beta2 integrin-mediated adhesion, we observed an inhibition of formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-directed chemotaxis. Together with an augmentation of neutrophil reactive oxidant species production and release of superoxide anions, these data raise the possibility that soluble E-selectin exerts pro-inflammatory effects upon neutrophil function at sites of inflammation, thereby exacerbating disease processes.
Differential IgE recognition of recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergens by cystic fibrosis patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or Aspergillus allergy.
Hemmann S. Nikolaizik WH. Schoni MH. Blaser K. Crameri R.
Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), Davos.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), an intense inflammatory reaction to Aspergillus in the lung, is recognized as a severe complication in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus is complicated by interfering laboratory and clinical findings shared by the diseases. We have used cDNA encoding A. fumigatus allergens which were cloned from a cDNA library displayed on phage surface to produce recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Differential IgE responses to the allergens in A. fumigatus-sensitized CF patients with or without ABPA and CF controls without sensitization to A. fumigatus were demonstrated. A secreted ribotoxin (rAsp f 1) and a peroxisomal protein (rAsp f 3) were recognized by sera from A. fumigatus-sensitized CF-patients with or without ABPA. An intracellular manganese superoxide dismutase (rAsp f 6) and rAsp f 4, a protein with unknown function, were recognized exclusively by IgE from sera of CF patients with ABPA. Therefore, Asp f 4 and Asp f 6 represent specific markers for ABPA and allow a sensitive, fully specific diagnosis of the disease. The data suggest distinct IgE responses to colonization of the bronchial tree in CF patients with ABPA or A. fumigatus allergy and therefore a differential recognition of the pathogen in the two IgE-related inflammatory diseases.
Expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes of a single-chain anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody. Redirected Fas ligand-mediated lysis of colon carcinoma.
Darcy PK. Kershaw MH. Trapani JA. Smyth MJ.
Cellular Cytotoxicity Laboratory, The Austin Research Institute, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.
In the MD45 mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) hybridoma cell line, we have expressed a chimeric receptor, consisting of the single-chain variable domains (scFv) of anti-carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) mAb linked to Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR) chain via a CD8 hinge. Transfected MD45 subclones lysed CEA-positive human colon carcinoma cell lines in an antigen-specific and FasL-dependent manner. The degree of lysis correlated with the level of chimeric receptor expressed on transduced MD45 subclones. The requirement for an intact Y65TGL motif in the signaling gamma chain suggested that interaction of the chimeric receptor with target cell CEA induced the cytotoxicity of MD45-scFv subclones. However, MD45 expressing a Y65F mutant chimera still displayed minor levels of lysis following PMA stimulation, suggesting that PMA could bypass gamma chain induction of functional FasL. Pretreatment of Fas-resistant CEA-positive colon carcinoma target cells with IFN-gamma increased their sensitivity of MD45-scFv subclones and FasL-mediated lysis. This study has demonstrated the successful activation of FasL function via a chimeric receptor introduced into lymphocytes and the susceptibility of human colon carcinoma to combined cytokine and CTL treatment.