The effect of different anaesthetic agents in hearing loss following spinal anaesthesia.
Gultekin S. Yilmaz N. Ceyhan A. Karamustafa I. Kilic R. Unal N.
Department of Anaesthesia and ENT, Ministry of Health, Ankara Hospital, Cebeci, Turkey.
The cause of hearing loss after spinal anaesthesia is unknown. Up until now, the only factor studied has been the effect of the diameter of the spinal needle on post-operative sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study was to describe this hearing loss and to investigate other factors influencing the degree of hearing loss. Two groups of 22 similar patients were studied: one group received 6 mL prilocaine 2%; and the other received 3 mL bupivacaine 0.5%. Patients given prilocaine were more likely to develop hearing loss (10 out of 22) than those given bupivacaine (4 out of 22) (P < 0.05). The average hearing loss for speech frequencies was about 10 dB after prilocaine and 15 dB after bupivacaine. None of the patients complained of subjective hearing loss. Long-term follow-up of the patients was not possible.
International, multicentre, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of ondansetron vs. metoclopramide in the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting.
Morris RW. Aune H. Feiss P. Hanson A. Hasselstrom L. Maltby JR. Rocke DA. Rozenberg B. Rust M. Cohen LA.
Department of Anaesthetics, Princess of Wales Hospital, Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan, UK.
Ondansetron 4 mg was compared with metoclopramide 10 mg for prevention of post-operative nausea and emesis in in-patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. A total of 1044 patients received a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of study medication immediately before induction of anaesthesia. Nausea and emesis were assessed over the 24 h post-operative period. Significantly more patients who received ondansetron experienced no emetic episodes (44%) compared with those who received metoclopramide (37%, P = 0.049) or placebo (25%, P < 0.001). No nausea was experienced by significantly more patients who received ondansetron (32%) than with patients who received metoclopramide (24%, P = 0.009) or placebo (16%, P < 0.001). In addition, fewer emetic episodes, less severe nausea and a reduced need for rescue antiemetics were also observed with ondansetron (P < 0.05 vs. metoclopramide and placebo). Metoclopramide and placebo-treated patients were also 1.5 times (95% Cl 1.5-4.2) and 2.5 times (95% Cl 1.1-2.0) more likely, respectively, to experience nausea post-operatively. Overall, ondansetron was the most effective antiemetic in this patient population.
Anti-emetic efficacy of prophylactic granisetron, droperidol and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Fujii Y. Saitoh Y. Tanaka H. Toyooka H.
Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Tsukuba Institute of Clinical Medicine, Ibaraki, Japan.
This study evaluates the prophylactic anti-emetic efficacy of granisetron, droperidol and metoclopramide, for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting in female patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 30 for each group): granisetron 3 mg, droperidol 1.25 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg and placebo (saline). These medications were given immediately before the induction of anaesthesia. During the first 24 h after anaesthesia, the incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting was 13, 30, 33 and 37% after administration of granisetron, droperidol, metoclopramide and placebo, respectively (P < 0.05, overall Fisher's exact probability test). No clinically important adverse effects were observed in either group. Our results suggest that granisetron is a better anti-emetic than droperidol or metoclopramide for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared with a placebo.
Post-operative effects of tramadol administered at wound closure.
De Witte J. Rietman GW. Vandenbroucke G. Deloof T.
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, OLV-Hospital, Aalst, Belgium.
The aim of this prospective, randomized and double-blind study was to assess the effects of a high dose of the analgesic tramadol administered at the conclusion of surgery on extubation time, sedation, and post-anaesthetic shivering. Forty adult patients, ASA physical status I or II, underwent laparoscopic surgery of about 1 h duration and received a standardized anaesthesia that was maintained with isoflurane in O2/N2O. Tramadol 3 mg kg-1 (n = 20) was administered intravenously at the beginning of wound closure, and was compared with saline (n = 20). Post-anaesthetic shivering did not occur in any patient who received tramadol, whereas it occurred in 60% of the control group (P < 0.001). There were no adverse effects on time to extubation and sedation, and discharge-ready time was shorter in the tramadol group (P < 0.05 compared with control). Pain scores in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) were statistically not different between the two groups, but significantly more supplemental medication was administered in the control group to treat shivering and/or pain. In conclusion, administration of a high dose of tramadol at the end of surgery prevents post-anaesthetic shivering without prolongation of extubation time, and shortens the PACU/discharge-ready time.
Cardiac tamponade during laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.
Farlo J. Thawgathurai D. Mikhail M. Yaker K. Sullivan J. Morgan E.
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Southern California, Kenneth Norris Jr. Cancer Hospital, Los Angeles 90033, USA.
Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is becoming a popular technique in the surgical management of reflux disease. The advantages of laparoscopic surgery include shorter hospital stays, greater patient acceptance and decreased overall morbidity. Laparoscopic surgery eliminates the necessity for an upper abdominal incision and the consequent post-operative impairment of pulmonary mechanics. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication has been associated with a low incidence of severe peri-operative complications although of a different nature to those following the open procedure. We are reporting a rare case of acute cardiovascular collapse secondary to cardiac tamponade during laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.