Function of cis-acting elements in human alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (ADH4) promoter and role of C/EBP proteins in gene expression.
Li M. Edenberg HJ.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202-5122, USA.
The ADH4 gene, which encodes human pi-alcohol dehydrogenase, is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with the highest level in liver and lower levels in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined the location and function of the cis-acting elements that regulate ADH4 transcription. Liver contains proteins that bound to seven sites in the proximal promoter (from bp -387 to bp +17). Proteins from other tissues bound to subsets of these sites and to two additional sites, one of which is a negative cis-acting element. Members of two important transcription factor families, C/EBP and AP-1, bound to several sites in this promoter. The proximal ADH4 promoter functioned in a hepatoma cell line (H4IIE-C3) and a kidney cell line (CV-1). Coexpression of members of the C/EBP family strongly enhanced promoter activity, which can in part explain the high level of expression of ADH4 in liver. At one site that can be bound by both C/EBP and c-Jun, a mutation that abolished binding by C/EBP but not by c-Jun decreased promoter activity in both cell lines. This mutation had a stronger effect in the context of a longer promoter, suggesting interaction among cis-acting elements.