Acquisition of cell adhesion and induction of focal adhesion kinase of human colon cancer Colo 201 cells by retinoic acid-induced differentiation.
Nakagawa K. Sogo S. Hioki K. Tokunaga R. Taketani S.
Second Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan.
The human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines Colo 201 and Colo 205 lose adhevise capacity to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and take on a round and floating cell shape. Treatment of these cells with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) results in inhibition of growth and in a marked increase in the production of carcinoembryonic antigen, thereby indicating that the cells undergo differentiation. This RA-induced differentiation was accompanied by a large increase in the degree of cell adhesion with localization of E-cadherin molecules at cell-cell contact sites. We examined several adhesion molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction by immunoblotting, but no change in E-cadherin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, or CD44 was observed in RA-treated Colo 201 cells. Although the adhesion of Colo 201 cells to ECM depends on the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence, levels of integrins, alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 5, alpha V, and beta 1 in differentiated adherent cells were similar to those in untreated cells. In contrast to equivalent amounts of cell surface adhesion molecules before and after differentiation, intracellular focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was markedly induced during RA treatment, and the increase in FAK resulted in elevation of tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK. These findings suggest a role for FAK in activation of cell adhesion of RA-induced differentiation of these colon cancer cells. This may serve as an appropriate model to examine the mode of activation of the adhesive capacity of cancer cells.