Coeliac disease in children and adolescents with IDDM: clinical characteristics and response to gluten-free diet.
Acerini CL. Ahmed ML. Ross KM. Sullivan PB. Bird G. Dunger DB.
Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, UK.
A total of 167 children and adolescents with insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetes mellitus (97 males; age range 1.9-22.4 yrs) in a UK paediatric diabetic clinic were screened for coeliac disease using the IgA endomysial (EMA) test, or, in IgA deficient subjects, the IgG antigliadin (AGA) test. Antibody positive subjects were selected for small bowel biopsy, and confirmed coeliac cases started on a gluten free diet. Clinical features, height (Ht) standard deviation score (SDS), body mass index (BMI) SDS, HbA1c, insulin requirements' haemoglobin (Hb), mean red cell volume (MCV), serum folate and ferritin levels were evaluated at diagnosis and thereafter at 3-6 month intervals. A total of 156 subjects (93.4%) were antibody negative. Eleven (6.6%) were antibody positive (10 EMA/1 AGA; 6 males), of whom 9 had biopsies: 1 normal: 8 coeliac (4.8%; 5 males; 1 'classical'; 1 anaemia; 3 'atypical'; 3 asymptomatic). Seven coeliac subjects were followed during 12-24 months of dietary therapy. Pretreatment mean (range) Ht SDS = 0.08 (-1.66 to 1.88); BMI SDS = 0.32 (-0.82 to 1.29); HbA1c = 8.9 (6.2 to 11.3%); insulin dose = 0.98 (0.51 to 1.29) U kg(-1) day(-1). During treatment antibody status reverted to and remained negative, and symptoms resolved. By 24 months, there was a trend towards increased BMI SDS (mean (range) 1.31 (0.47 to 2.29), p = 0.248) and to reductions in HbA1c (8.1 (6.4-10.8), p = 0.697). Repeat small bowel biopsies were normal in 6 subjects (1 refused). No statistically significant changes occurred in any other parameters. In conclusion, serological screening is effective, although the therapeutic benefit of dietary therapy in asymptomatic cases remains uncertain.
Antibodies to pancreatic islet cell antigens in diabetes seen in Southern India with particular reference to fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes.
Mohan V. Deepa R. Bhatia E. Singh AK. Hitman GA. Zimmet PZ. MacKay IR.
M.V. Diabetes Specialites Centre, and Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Gopalapuram, Chennai, India.
Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) is a type of diabetes secondary to tropical chronic non-alcoholic pancreatitis. Little is known about the aetiopathogenesis of FCPD. We studied glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) and islet cell antibodies (ICA) in patients with FCPD and compared the results with Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus, Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic subjects in Southern India. The prevalence of GAD-Ab was 7.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.9-17.2) in FCPD, 47.5% (CI 31.4-64.0) in Type 1 (p < 0.001 compared to FCPD), 5.6% (CI 1.5-13.9) in Type 2 (non-significant (NS) compared to FCPD) and 0% in controls. The prevalence of ICA was 6.3% (CI 1.2-17.4) in FCPD, 53.8% (CI 37.1-70.0) in Type 1 (p < 0.001 compared to FCPD), 9.9% (CI 4.0-19.4) in Type 2 (NS compared to FCPD) and 4.7% (CI 0.4-16.1) in controls. The data suggest that in FCPD, the frequency of auto-antibodies is low and its aetiology is probably not linked to autoimmunity in the majority of the patients.
Lipid but not glycaemic parameters predict total mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus in Canterbury, New Zealand.
Florkowski CM. Scott RS. Moir CL. Graham PJ.
Lipid and Diabetes Research Group, Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand.
A cohort of 447 subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (208 male, 239 female; age range 30-82, median 62 years; and of predominantly European origin) was characterized in a clinic survey in 1989. Individual status (dead or alive) at 1 June 1995 was ascertained. Mortality rates were compared with the general New Zealand population by calculating standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and the hazard ratio (HR) of prognostic factors evaluated with Cox's proportional hazards model. At 6 years, 289 subjects were confirmed as alive and 133 as dead; only 25 were untraceable. Six-year survival for the cohort was 70% (95% CI 66-74). SMR was 2.53 (95% CI 1.99-2.68) for the female cohort and 2.03 (95% CI 1.60-2.59) for the male cohort. Factors assessed at baseline (1989) that were independently prognostic of total mortality included age, male sex, pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.3) and plasma cholesterol (HR for 1.4 mmol l(-1) change: 1.49, 95% CI 1.2-1.9). HDL-cholesterol was protective in women (HR for 0.4 mmol l(-1) change: 0.72, 95% CI 0.51-1.00) but not men. Glycated haemoglobin was not a significant predictor of total mortality. Predictors of CAD mortality (in those subjects free of CAD in 1989) included plasma cholesterol (HR for 1.4 mmol l(-1) change: 1.86 95% CI 1.20-2.89), glycated haemoglobin (HR for 1.8% change: 1.9 95% CI 1.04-3.47), male sex, peripheral vascular disease, and smoking. There is therefore increased mortality in Type 2 diabetic subjects in Canterbury, New Zealand. HDL-cholesterol is protective against total mortality in females.
Carbohydrate malabsorption following acarbose administration.
Sobajima H. Mori M. Niwa T. Muramatsu M. Sugimoto Y. Kato K. Naruse S. Kondo T. Hayakawa T.
Department of Internal Medicine, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Ogaki-city, Gifu Prefecture, Japan.
Carbohydrate absorption was assessed during acarbose administration to investigate the actions of this drug. In 7 healthy volunteers, breath hydrogen concentration was measured at 15-min intervals after administration of 6 g of lactulose, and continued until 4 h after the breath hydrogen level exceeded its pretreatment value by > or =10 ppm, then the amount of undigested carbohydrate was calculated following administration of various doses of acarbose and Ensure Liquid. Breath hydrogen data were also obtained before and after administration of acarbose to 8 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus for 2 and 4 months. After administration of 50 mg of acarbose with 250 ml or 500 ml of Ensure, the mean amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate was 5.3 g and 7.7 g, respectively, while unabsorbed carbohydrate increased to 10.8 g after 100 mg of acarbose with 500 ml of Ensure. In the diabetic patients, breath hydrogen excretion decreased to 31.6% of baseline after 2 months of acarbose administration, indicating decreased carbohydrate malabsorption. Despite this, the haemoglobin A1c level remained stable after 5 months. In conclusion, the extent of carbohydrate malabsorption depended on the acarbose dose and the carbohydrate load. Although carbohydrate malabsorption decreased with continued acarbose administration, the improvement of glycaemic control was maintained.