Just how big is the pulmonary granulocyte pool?
1. It is widely believed that a large fraction of the blood granulocyte population is located in the pulmonary circulation. 2. Evidence in favour of this belief is based on several independent and complementary techniques including studies of granulocyte deformability in relation to pulmonary capillary diameter, isolated perfused lungs, direct videomicroscopic observations, cellular and capillary morphometry, physiological studies and labelled blood cell kinetics. 3. Inconsistencies in this body of evidence can be identified and traced in many cases to doubts concerning the physiological integrity of labelled granulocytes. 4. In addition to the lungs, other regions of the body undoubtedly pool granulocytes, and there is good quantitative evidence, based mainly on clinical studies, pointing to the liver, bone marrow and especially the spleen. 5. Clinical studies, furthermore, have generally not supported major granulocyte pooling in the lung, except in association with systemic inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and systemic vasculitis. 6. Compromises based on technical considerations permit reconciliation of the literature, and an overall whole-body model of granulocyte distribution is proposed with which all the existing data are broadly compatible.
Changes to mucins in uninvolved mucosa and at the tumour site in gastric adenocarcinoma of intestinal type.
Sidebotham RL. Dhir NK. Elder JB. Spencer J. Walker MM. Schrager J.
Department of Surgery, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, U.K.
1. Mucin histochemistry is markedly altered in the stomach in intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. To increase understanding of these changes we have examined the content and distribution of carbohydrate in mucus glycopolypeptides isolated from non-malignant antrum, and from the uninvolved gastric mucosa and tumour site of patients with this disease. 2. The content of carbohydrate declined by 12.6% (P = 0.02) in mucus glycopolypeptides from uninvolved gastric mucosa when compared with those from non-malignant antrum, and by a further 25.4% (P < 0.001) in mucus glycopolypeptides from the tumour site. The first of these changes was accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of carbohydrate chains/1000 amino acid residues, and a significant increase in the number of monosaccharide units in each carbohydrate chain. The second of these changes was accompanied by significant decreases in both the number of carbohydrate chains/1000 amino acid residues, and in the number of monosaccharide units in each carbohydrate chain. 3. The number of sulphated monosaccharide units/100 carbohydrate chains increased from a mean of 7.2 in mucus glycopolypeptides from non-malignant antrum to a mean of 27.2 (P < 0.001) in preparations from uninvolved gastric mucosa and 22.7 (P < 0.001) in preparations from the tumour site. 4. Evidence is presented that these structural changes to mucus glycopolypeptides from the malignant stomach are due to an abnormal mucin biosynthesis by metaplastic goblet cells and/or immature gastric-type mucous cells within the uninvolved mucosa, and immature mucous cells at the tumour site.
Dietary fish oil suppresses human colon tumour growth in athymic mice.
Calder PC. Davis J. Yaqoob P. Pala H. Thies F. Newsholme EA.
Division of Human Nutrition, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, U.K.
1. Human colon tumour growth, initiated by subcutaneous inoculation of HT29 cells, was measured in athymic mice fed ad libitum on high-fat (210 g/kg) diets rich in coconut oil (CO), olive oil (OO), safflower oil (SO) or fish oil (FO); a low fat (LF; 25 g/kg) diet was used as the control. In one experiment the mice were fed the experimental diets for 3 weeks before HT29 cell inoculation and were killed 2 weeks post-inoculation. In a second experiment the mice were maintained on the LF diet until 4 days post-HT29 cell inoculation; they were then fed the experimental diets for 17 days. 2. Compared with mice fed the LF diet, tumour size was increased in mice fed the CO, OO or SO diets for 3 weeks before HT29 cell inoculation; FO feeding did not significantly increase tumour size. 3. Feeding mice the CO or OO diets from 4 days post-inoculation increased tumour growth rate and tumour size compared with feeding the LF, SO or FO diets; tumour growth rate and size did not differ among mice fed the latter diets. 4. The fatty acid composition of the tumours was markedly influenced by the fatty acid composition of the diet. 5. We conclude that human colon tumour growth is influenced by the type of fat consumed in the diet. Human colon tumour growth in this model is promoted by feeding high fat diets rich in medium chain saturated fatty acids (CO) or monounsaturated fatty acids (OO). A high fat diet, rich in long chain n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FO), does not promote colon tumour growth. The effect of a high fat diet rich in n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (SO) depends upon the time at which it is fed: if fed before tumour cell inoculation such a diet promotes tumour growth, whereas if fed once tumour growth is initiated it does not. This suggests that n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote the initiation of colon tumour growth, but do not exert growth-promoting effects on colon tumours once they are established.