Detection of regional lymph node metastases in colon cancer by using RT-PCR for matrix metalloproteinase 7, matrilysin.
Ichikawa Y. Ishikawa T. Momiyama N. Yamaguchi S. Masui H. Hasegawa S. Chishima T. Takimoto A. Kitamura H. Akitaya T. Hosokawa T. Mitsuhashi M. Shimada H.
Second Department of Surgery, Yokohama City University, School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.
Lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in colon cancer. However, more accurate screening for metastasis than that afforded by conventional pathology remains elusive. We have employed a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), 'matrilysin', because this gene is epithelial-specific and consistently expressed in colorectal cancer cells. The sensitivity of this assay was examined with the matrilysin-producing rectal cancer cell line 'CaR-1'. Matrilysin mRNA was detected in this system when more than 10(4) matrilysin-positive cells existed in a lymph node of ordinary size. Fourteen of 15 (93%) primary colon cancers and none of the surrounding normal tissues expressed matrilysin. All 10 histologically-positive lymph nodes were positive for matrilysin, while of 60 histologically-negative lymph nodes, eight were positive for matrilysin. When the additional sequential sectioning and histological re-examination was performed on five of these eight 'matrilysin-positive, but histologically-negative' lymph nodes, micrometastases were detected in three. Only one of the lymph nodes that were histologically-positive, but negative by matrilysin assay was from a patient with colon cancer in which matrilysin was not detected. In conclusion, RT-PCR assay for matrilysin is a sensitive method for detecting occult metastases in patients with colon cancer, and may complement histologic examination.
Tumor-associated proteases and inhibitors in gastric cancer: analysis of prognostic impact and individual risk protease patterns.
Allgayer H. Babic R. Grutzner KU. Beyer BC. Tarabichi A. Schildberg FW. Heiss MM.
Department of Surgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany.
Expression of proteolytic parameters of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system [uPA receptor (uPA-R), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1] has been proven to be an independent prognostic parameter in cancer. However, it has not been considered that the uPA system is interacting with several other protease/inhibitor systems, neither has a comparable prognostic role of these factors been investigated. Moreover, studies evaluating specific protease patterns indicating high individual risk are missing completely. Therefore, in a consecutive prospective series of 203 gastric cancer patients, the expression of activators (plasminogen, tPA, MMP-2, cathepsin D, antithrombin 3) and inhibitors (alpha-2-antiplasmin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin) of proteolysis was studied immunohistochemically in the tumor epithelium semiquantitatively (score 0-3) in addition to the uPA system. Kaplan-Meier analysis (median time of follow-up 31 months) revealed a significant association of cathepsin D (P=0.0042), alpha-2-macroglobulin (P=0.0281) and antitrypsin (P=0.0372) with disease-free survival and of cathepsin D (P=0.0018), antitrypsin (P=0.0112) and antichymotrypsin (P=0.0002) with overall survival. Multivariate Cox analysis performed to correct these results for relative impact of the uPA system and established prognostic factors showed PAI-1 (disease-free survival: P=0.002, relative risk 1.86; overall survival: P=0.005, relative risk 1.39), pT and pN as independent parameters. Cathepsin D was shown to have an independent impact on disease-free survival (P=0.020, relative risk 2.98). Comparative chi-square analysis of cases with poor and good prognoses revealed that in patients with good clinical outcome, inhibitors of proteolysis are correlated significantly, whereas in patients with poor prognosis activators of proteolysis are significantly associated preferentially and significant correlations with the uPA-R are dominant. For detailed pattern analysis, stepwise overall Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed in subgroups of high uPA-R-, uPA-, PAI1- and cathepsin D expression for two additional proteases each. From these analyses, the combination of high (score 2/3) expression of uPA-R, PAI-1, antichymotrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin was identified as a high-risk pattern, representing parameters known to be essential for uPA-R internalization and recycling. This suggests some of the uPA-associated proteases and inhibitors investigated as univariate prognostic parameters in gastric cancer. Cathepsin D is a new independent parameter for disease-free survival. The study further demonstrates that a protease pattern promoting uPA-R recycling in tumor cells especially indicates high individual risk tumors in gastric cancer.
Hepatocyte growth factor stimulates the invasion of gallbladder carcinoma cell lines in vitro.
Li H. Shimura H. Aoki Y. Date K. Matsumoto K. Nakamura T. Tanaka M.
Department of Surgery 1, Kyushu University Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.
Human gallbladder cancer is highly malignant and its prognosis is usually poor depending on the extent of surrounding tissue invasion. We examined in vitro the invasive activity of four gallbladder cancer cell lines (GB-d1, GB-h3, GB-d2 and FU-GBC-1) in the absence or presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In type 1 collagen gel culture, HGF stimulated cell proliferation and induced an invasive phenotype of arborizing structures in GB-d1, GB-h3 and GB-d2. In a Matrigel invasion assay, invasion was also induced in three of these cell lines by HGF but not in FU-GBC-1. Cellular motility was, however, stimulated by HGF in all of the four cell lines to various extents. Zymography for proteolytic enzymes demonstrated high levels of type IV collagenase and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) activity in GB-d1, GB-h3 and GB-d2 even in the absence of HGF. In the presence of HGF, the 72 kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-2) activity of GB-h3 and u-PA activities of GB-d1, GB-h3 and GB-d2 were enhanced. In contrast, the MMPs and PAs activities of FU-GBC-1 were faint irrespective of the addition of HGF. A Western blot analysis demonstrated higher levels of 190 kDa c-MET product (HGF receptor) of GB-d1, GB-h3 and GB-d2 than that of FU-GBC-1. The invasion in the Matrigel assay stimulated by HGF was inhibited by protease inhibitors, aprotinin and FOY-305, as well as by anti-HGF antibody. These results thus suggest that, in addition to the importance of the proteolytic activity, the cellular motility induced via the HGF/HGF-receptor system is essential for the invasive progression of gallbladder carcinoma cells.
Down-regulation of focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, in endothelial cell retraction during tumor cell invasion.
Okamoto H. Nakamori S. Mukai M. Shinkai K. Ohigashi H. Ishikawa O. Furukawa H. Imaoka S. Matumoto Y. Monden M. Akedo H.
Department of Tumor Biochemistry, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Japan.
Although endothelial cell retraction is required before tumor cell invasion, its molecular mechanism still remains obscure. We previously demonstrated that conditioned medium (CM) derived from a human pancreatic cancer cell line, PSN-1, induced endothelial cell retraction and facilitated tumor cell invasion. To investigate the molecular change of events in the transduction of extracellular signals during endothelial cell retraction, we examined the effect of the CM derived from PSN-1 cells on the tyrosine phosphorylation in endothelial cells. Immunoblot analyses revealed that the PSN-1 CM decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of a 120-130 kD protein, and induced the concomitant down-regulation of focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, during endothelial cell retraction in time- and dose-dependent fashions. These changes preceded endothelial cell retraction and were reversible after removal of the CM. Further quantitative densitometric analyses demonstrated that the extent of decrease in tyrosine phosphorylated 120-130 kD protein during the endothelial cell retraction was likely to be proportional to that of the down-regulation of pp125FAK. A tyrosine phosphorylated 120-130 kD protein immunoprecipitated by anti-phosphotyrosine antibody immunoreacted with anti-pp125FAK antibody. These results suggested that decreased amount of a tyrosine phosphorylated 120-130 kD protein probably due to the down-regulation of pp125FAK might be associated with the signal transduction pathway in the endothelial cells during their retraction. Furthermore, these findings were also observed in the CM from another four human cancer cell lines, suggesting the down-regulation of pp125FAK in endothelial cells during tumor cell invasion.
C-met activation is necessary but not sufficient for liver colonization by B16 murine melanoma cells.
Lin S. Rusciano D. Lorenzoni P. Hartmann G. Birchmeier W. Giordano S. Comoglio P. Burger MM.
Friedrich Miescher Institut, Basel, Switzerland.
Metastasis to the liver is a frequent event in clinical oncology, the molecular mechanisms of which are not fully understood. We have recently reported a consistent overexpression of c-met in B16 melanoma cells selected in vivo for enhanced liver metastatic ability. In this study we address the question as to whether constitutive activation of c-met is a necessary and sufficient condition for enhanced liver colonization by B16 melanoma cells. Different levels of c-met expression and/or activation in B16 cells were achieved by subcloning, or by c-DNA transfection with either HGF/SF or the oncogenic form of c-met (tpr-met). Metastatic ability of the different populations was then evaluated in vivo by the lung colonization (experimental metastasis) assay. Results indicate that c-met (but not tpr-met) activation in B16 melanoma cells may increase their liver colonizing potential, probably by enhancing motility and invasion in response to paracrine interactions with its ligand. C-met expression per se, however, is not able to change the organ specificity of the cells. C-met activation appears instead to be required at later stages of liver colonization by B16 melanoma cells, in order to enhance their site-specific metastatic ability.
Relation of matrilysin messenger RNA expression with invasive activity in human gastric cancer.
Senota A. Itoh F. Yamamoto H. Adachi Y. Hinoda Y. Imai K.
First Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Japan.
Matrilysin is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase gene family which is believed to play an important role in tumor progression. Expression of matrilysin mRNA was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with Southern blot analysis in 46 human primary gastric cancers. Overexpression of matrilysin was observed in 28 (61%) of gastric cancer tissues. The positive expression ratio of matrilysin was significantly higher in the gastric cancers of subserosa or beyond it than in those within the submucosal layer. Immunohistochemical study with anti-matrilysin monoclonal antibody revealed that matrilysin was mainly expressed on cancer cells but not or very weakly expressed on other cells. In addition, an activated form of matrilysin detected by zymographic analysis was observed in gastric cancer tissues whereas none was detected in non-cancerous tissues, suggesting that matrilysin may directly and powerfully contribute to the invasion step of human gastric cancer. In order to gain more insight into the relationship of this metalloproteinase to invasive activity, we also modulated the expression of matrilysin in gastric cancer cells by DNA transfection using gastric cancer cell lines. Overexpression of matrilysin rendered the gastric cancer cells more invasive in vitro. Concomitant with clinical investigations, matrilysin may be an important metalloproteinase in the progression of gastric cancer.
TAC-101, a benzoic acid derivative, inhibits liver metastasis of human gastrointestinal cancer and prolongs the life-span.
Murakami K. Wierzba K. Sano M. Shibata J. Yonekura K. Hashimoto A. Sato K. Yamada Y.
Taiho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Hanno Research Center, Hanno-City, Saitama, Japan.
We examined the anti-tumor effect of a novel benzoic acid derivative, TAC-101 (4-[3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl) benzamide] benzoic acid) on models with liver metastasis. Oral administration of TAC-101 significantly inhibited spontaneous liver metastasis of AZ-521 (human gastric cancer ) by orthotopic implantation to athymic nude mice. It also inhibited both the liver metastasis of AZ-521 induced by intrasplenic injection and the secondary lung metastasis from the liver. In addition, TAC-101 inhibited the proliferation of Co-3 (human colon adenocarcinoma) that formed a single nodule in the liver of athymic nude mice by intrahepatic implantation. The growth inhibitory effect of TAC-101 on AZ-521 experimental liver metastasis was observed when treatment was started on day 7, 14, or 21 which may correspond to the progressive stage of liver metastasis in clinical settings. Multiple administration of TAC-101 (8 mg/kg/day) significantly prolonged survival time of the animals with liver metastasis by intrasplenic injection of AZ-521 (T/C = 230%) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma; T/C = 186%). These effects of TAC-101 were stronger than those of 5-FU, CDDP or ATRA. Furthermore, TAC-101 inhibited the binding of AP-1 to DNA on electrophoretic mobility shift assay using nuclear extract of AZ-521 cells, although ATRA did not inhibit. These findings suggested that TAC-101 may be a candidate for a new class of anti-cancer agents for liver metastasis.
Adhesion polypeptides are useful for the prevention of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.
Matsuoka T. Hirakawa K. Chung YS. Yashiro M. Nishimura S. Sawada T. Saiki I. Sowa M.
First Department of Surgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan.
We examined the effect of adhesion polypeptides on the adhesion and invasiveness of gastric cancer cell lines. We previously reported the establishment of an extensively peritoneal-seeding cell line, OCUM-2MD3, from a poorly seeding human scirrhous gastric carcinoma cell line, OCUM-2M. Both alpha2beta1 and alpha3beta1 integrin expression was markedly increased on OCUM-2MD3 cells compared with OCUM-2M cells, and the ability of OCUM-2MD3 cells to bind to the extracellular matrix (ECM) was also significantly higher than that of OCUM-2M cells. The adhesion polypeptides, YIGSR and RGD, and two RGD derivatives significantly inhibited the adhesion of OCUM-2MD3 cells to the submesothelial ECM, while not inhibiting the adhesiveness of OCUM-2M cells and two well differentiated human gastric cell lines, MKN-28 and MKN-74. The YIGSR and RGD peptides also significantly inhibited the invasiveness of OCUM-2MD3 cells. The survival of nude mice with peritoneal dissemination given YIGSR sequence intraperitoneally was obviously longer than that of untreated mice. The survival of mice treated with RGD was also improved, and this effect was increased using the RGD derivatives, poly(CEMA-RGDS) and CM-chitin RGDS. These polypeptides appear to block the binding of integrins, which are expressed on OCUM-2MD3 cells, to the submesothelial ECM, and consequently inhibit peritoneal implantation. The peritoneal injection of adhesion polypeptides may be a new therapy against the dissemination of scirrhous gastric cancer, and may be useful for the prevention of dissemination in high-risk patients.
Establishment of lymph node metastatic model for human gastric cancer in nude mice and analysis of factors associated with metastasis.
Fujihara T. Sawada T. Hirakawa K. Chung YS. Yashiro M. Inoue T. Sowa M.
First Department of Surgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan.
The actual mechanisms responsible for lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer are still unclear. To investigate the mechanisms of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer, we established a lymph node metastatic model for human scirrhous gastric carcinoma. Lymph node metastasis had frequently developed after orthotopic implantation of OCUM-2M LN derived from a scirrhous gastric cancer cell line, OCUM-2M, which had low capacity for lymph node metastasis. We elucidated the different characteristics including binding ability, migratory capacity and immunoresponses induced by the cell surface molecules of these two cell lines. The binding ability to Matrigel and migratory capacity of OCUM-2M LN cells were significantly greater than those of OCUM-2M cells. On flow cytometric analysis, both OCUM-2M and OCUM-2M LN cells strongly expressed HLA-I (99.5 and 97.1%) and LFA-3 (76.6 and 99.2%) in level of expression between the two cell lines, but neither cell line expressed HLA-II (0.0 and 0.0%), B7-1 (0.0 and 0.0%) or B7-2 (0.4 and 0.3%). ICAM-1 expression in OCUM-2M LN cells was weaker (0.7%) than that in OCUM-2M cells (36.8%). Strong adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of mononuclear lymphocytes for OCUM-2M cells were observed in adhesion and cytotoxic assays, both of which were significantly decreased by the addition of anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. On the other hand, the adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of OCUM-2M LN cells were significantly less than those of OCUM-2M cells, and were not affected by the addition of anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. These findings suggest that decreased ICAM-1 expression in a new gastric cancer cell line with a high rate of lymph node metastasis may in turn decrease immune responses mediated through LFA-1-dependent effector cell adhesion, and that this escape from the immunosurveillance system may be one of the factors inducing lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, we established a gastric cancer cell line, OCUM-2M LN, with a high rate of lymph node metastasis. An in vivo lymph node-metastatic model with this cell line should be useful for analysing the mechanism and therapeutic approach of lymph node metastasis.