Apoptosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO 201) by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), resulting from down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression.
Koshiji M. Adachi Y. Sogo S. Taketani S. Oyaizu N. Than S. Inaba M. Phawa S. Hioki K. Ikehara S.
First Department of Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan.
Fas antigen is constitutively expressed in the normal colon epithelium, but considerably diminished in most colorectal carcinomas. In the present study, we examine the relationship between Fas antigen expression and apoptosis using the colorectal carcinoma cell line COLO 201, on which a low grade of Fas antigen is expressed. Anti-Fas antibody had no effect on the induction of apoptosis of COLO 201. However, TNF-alpha and/or IFN-gamma, independently and additively, up-regulated Fas antigen expression on COLO 201 and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both cytokines also increased the COLO 201 sensitivity to anti-Fas antibody, resulting from the down-modulation of Bcl-2 and the up-regulation of Bax. These findings indicate that cytokine(s) plus anti-Fas antibody (which mimics natural Fas ligand) are more effective in inducing apoptosis of COLO 201 than cytokine(s) alone. These findings suggest that immunotherapy in combination with cytokine(s) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells will become a more effective therapy for cancer than cytokine(s) or LAK cells alone, since the Fas ligand is expressed on activated T cells, natural killer cells and macrophages.
Induction of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor type p55 and p75 in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
Kallinowski B. Haseroth K. Marinos G. Hanck C. Stremmel W. Theilmann L. Singer MV. Rossol S.
Department of Gastroenterology, University of Heidelberg/Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
There is evidence that TNF-alpha contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis. The cellular effects of this cytokine are regulated by two specific receptors, and membranous shedding of these receptors reflects activation of the TNF system. We performed a study of TNF-alpha and functionally active soluble TNF-receptors (TNFR-p55 and -p75) in 105 patients with chronic HCV infection. In HCV RNA-positive patients a significant enhancement of TNF-alpha and both receptor types was observed compared with controls (TNF-alpha 83.8+/-91.7 pg/ml versus 18.8+/-8.4 pg/ml, P
Prevalence and characterization of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) directed against HMG1 and HMG2 in ulcerative colitis (UC).
Sobajima J. Ozaki S. Uesugi H. Osakada F. Shirakawa H. Yoshida M. Nakao K.
Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
In a previous study, we reported that the high mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 were novel target antigens of P-ANCA. In this study, we determined the immunodiagnostic value of anti-HMG1/HMG2 antibodies in patients with UC. Sixty sera from patients with UC were tested for reactivity with HMG1 and HMG2 by means of ELISA. Anti-HMG1 antibody was detected in 32% of patients (40% of P-ANCA+ patients). Anti-HMG2 antibody was detected in 33% (40% of P-ANCA+ patients). Thirty-five percent of sera were positive for antibody to either HMG1 or HMG2 (43% of P-ANCA+ patients). P-ANCA+ patients expressed anti-HMG1/HMG2 antibodies with significantly greater frequency compared with P-ANCA- patients. Furthermore, the anti-HMG1/HMG2 antibodies were significantly related to disease activity in UC. Sixteen of the 18 UC patients, who had high titres of anti-HMG1 or -HMG2 antibody during the active phase, showed lower titres in the inactive phase. Anti-HMG1/HMG2 antibodies appear to be useful as a marker for disease activity in UC.
Detection of complement C3 and factor B gene expression in normal colorectal mucosa, adenomas and carcinomas.
Andoh A. Fujiyama Y. Sakumoto H. Uchihara H. Kimura T. Koyama S. Bamba T.
Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tukinowa, Otsu, Japan.
Local secretion of complement components in the human intestine has been previously reported. However, the cellular source has not been identified. In this study, we demonstrate complement C3 and factor B mRNA expression in the normal colonic mucosa by in situ hybridization analysis. C3 and factor B genes were found to be expressed at high levels in the epithelial cells of the lower parts of the crypts in colonic mucosa, and this expression decreased gradually from the crypt base to the luminal surface. At the upper crypt and the luminal surface, these genes almost disappeared. C3 and factor B genes were expressed in all crypts at the same level. Furthermore, C3 and factor B gene expression was also identified in adenomas and carcinomas. In these neoplastic tissues, C3 and factor B genes were expressed uniformly, and the polarized distribution observed in the normal crypts was not detected. It is likely that complement components are locally synthesized in the intestine, and that these complement components may actively participate in normal immune and inflammatory responses over the enormous surface area of the intestinal mucosa.
A 75-kD autoantigen recognized by sera from patients with X-linked autoimmune enteropathy associated with nephropathy.
Kobayashi I. Imamura K. Yamada M. Okano M. Yara A. Ikema S. Ishikawa N.
Department of Paediatrics, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is a rare disorder characterized by intractable diarrhoea and antienterocyte autoantibody. In this study, we detected a 75-kD autoantigen which distributed through the whole intestine and the kidney, as assessed by Western blot analysis using sera from two unrelated cases of AIE associated with nephropathy. Our results suggest that the detection of the autoantibody against the 75-kD antigen has a diagnostic value in AIE and that the autoimmune reaction against the 75-kD antigen may be implicated in the development of intestinal and renal tissue damage in this rare disorder.
Serum levels of soluble CD30 are increased in ulcerative colitis (UC) but not in Crohns disease (CD).
Giacomelli R. Passacantando A. Parzanese I. Vernia P. Klidara N. Cucinelli F. Lattanzio R. Santori E. Cipriani P. Caprilli R. Tonietti G.
Clinica Medica, University of L'Aquila, Italy.
Imbalance in Th1 and Th2 subsets and their derived cytokines seems to be involved in the immune abnormalities underlying UC and CD. CD30 is a member of the tumour necrosis factor/nerve growth receptor superfamily expressed on T cells producing Th2 cytokines and released as a soluble form. In this study high levels of soluble CD30 were found in sera of UC patients independently of disease activity. Furthermore, increased titres of soluble CD30 molecule were shown, in the same patients, by mitogen-stimulated cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our data seem to indicate that an activation of Th2 immune response is involved in the pathogenesis of UC, but not of CD. Furthermore, this finding indicates that serum soluble CD30 measurement may be helpful for differentiating these two forms of inflammatory bowel disease.
Circulating T lymphocyte subsets in coeliac disease (CoD) patients and healthy family members.
Kerttula TO. Holm K. Partanen J. Polvi A. Maki M.
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Tampere University Hospital and Institute of Medical Technology, Finland.
Increased proportions of circulating antigen-primed CD45RO+ TCR gammadelta cells have been found in untreated CoD patients. As certain immunological features are now found in both CoD and healthy persons carrying the HLA DQ2 heterodimer, we sought to establish whether healthy members of the families of CoD patients who are positive for HLA DQ2 and also have increased densities of TCR gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in their small bowel mucosa have elevated levels of circulating TCR gammadelta memory cells. Peripheral blood T cells were analysed by flow cytometry in 22 patients with CoD and 16 healthy family members. Untreated CoD patients had higher percentages of circulating CD45RO+ TCR gammadelta cells and CD45RO+ Vdelta1+ cells than healthy family members. On the other hand, the amount of circulating Vdelta1+ lymphocytes was lower in patients with CoD compared with healthy family members. In contrast, no differences were found between HLA DQ2+ and HLA DQ2- healthy family members in respect of circulating TCR gammadelta cell subsets. The change in circulating TCR gammadelta cell subsets found in patients with CoD is thus a consequence of an ongoing immunological process which diminishes on a gluten-free diet rather than a phenomenon directly caused by DQ2. These changes in peripheral blood are not found in healthy individuals who have the same HLA alleles DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0201 encoding the HLA DQ2 and who also have increased densities of TCR gammadelta IEL in their otherwise normal jejunal mucosa.
A tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter polymorphism is associated with chronic hepatitis B infection.
Hohler T. Kruger A. Gerken G. Schneider PM. Meyer zum Buschenefelde KH. Rittner C.
Department of Internal Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
Cytokines such as TNF-alpha and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) are important for the elimination of infected hepatocytes during acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Two G versus A transitions in the TNF-alpha promoter region at positions -308 and -238 possibly influence TNF-alpha expression. We investigated these TNF-alpha polymorphisms in 71 patients with chronic HBV infection, in 32 subjects that had spontaneously recovered from acute HBV infection, and in 99 healthy controls. The -238 A promoter variant was present in 18 (25%) of 71 patients with chronic HBV infection compared with two (6%) of 32 subjects with acute infection (P
Catalase and alpha-enolase: two novel granulocyte autoantigens in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Roozendaal C. Zhao MH. Horst G. Lockwood CM. Kleibeuker JH. Limburg PC. Nelis GF. Kallenberg CG.
Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands.
In IBD, the target antigens of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) have not been fully identified, which limits the analysis of the diagnostic significance as well as of the possible pathophysiological role of these antibodies. In this study, we identify the target antigens of ANCA in large groups of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Apart from antibodies against lactoferrin and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which have been reported before, antibodies against two novel granulocyte antigens were identified: antibodies against a 57/56-kD doublet were found in 38% of samples from UC patients and in 26% of samples from CD patients, whereas antibodies against a 47-kD protein were found in 10% of samples from UC patients and in 18% of samples from CD patients. Partial purification and amino acid sequence analysis identified the 57-kD protein as catalase and the 47-kD protein as alpha-enolase. This study is the first to report catalase and alpha-enolase as granulocyte antigens for autoantibodies in IBD.
Effector T lymphocyte subsets in human pancreatic cancer: detection of CD8+CD18+ cells and CD8+CD103+ cells by multi-epitope imaging.
Ademmer K. Ebert M. Muller-Ostermeyer F. Friess H. Buchler MW. Schubert W. Malfertheiner P.
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an increasing incidence and an extremely poor prognosis. It is resistant to most of the conventional treatment modalities. Histomorphologically, it presents with a strong desmoplastic reaction around cancer cells, and lymphocytes are typically localized as aggregates in the fibrotic interstitial tissue. Using the method of multi-epitope imaging with fluorochrome-tagged specific MoAbs which allows the simultaneous localization and characterization of T cells in tissues, we studied phenotypes and distribution of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in pancreatic cancer. CD3+ T cells comprised up to 90% of the tumour-infiltrating cells which were either CD4+ or CD8+, most of them being memory cells (CD45RO+). In decreasing order of frequency, T lymphocytes carried the markers for CD45RO, CD18, CD103 and TCR gammadelta. Very few natural killer cells (CD56+) were observed. Twenty percent of CD8+ were labelled with CD103. These CD8+CD103+ T cells, analogous to the gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), were found in the fibrous interstitial tissue. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between the expression of CD18, the beta2-integrin, which mediates adhesion of activated lymphocytes, and CD45RO in the CD8+ subset of TIL (P = 0.046). In conclusion, phenotyping of T lymphocytes in pancreatic cancer raises the possibility that pancreatic cancer cells develop several strategies to escape the T cell-induced cytolysis by (i) the aggregation of cytotoxic CD8+CD103+ T cells in the fibrous tissue distant from the tumour cells, and (ii) the presence of CD18-bearing cells which lack the expression of the activation marker CD45RO.