Advances in staging of esophageal carcinoma.
Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA.
Staging criteria for thoracic malignancies are based on survival groupings that allow the stage groups to be used as prognosticators for cancer treatment. Definitive staging of esophageal cancer facilitates allocation of patients to appropriate treatment regimens according to each patient's stage. Existing noninvasive staging methods are imperfect in detecting abdominal and thoracic lymph node metastases in patients with esophageal cancer. Thoracoscopy is an excellent means for staging the chest and mediastinum. We have used thoracoscopic lymph node staging and laparoscopic lymph node staging for esophageal cancer since 1992. Thoracoscopy was performed in 45 patients with biopsy specimen-proved carcinoma of the esophagus. Laparoscopy was done in the last 20 patients. Laparoscopic-assisted feeding jejunostomies were performed in patients with obstructive symptoms. Directed liver biopsies were performed if lesions were present. Thoracoscopy was aborted in three patients because of adhesions. Thoracic lymph node stage was N0 in 40 patients and N1 in 3. Celiac lymph nodes were normal in 14 patients and abnormal in 6. Esophageal resection was performed in 30 patients after thoracoscopic lymph node staging; 18 of these underwent laparoscopic lymph node staging. Thoracoscopic staging showed N0 lymph node status in 28 patients and N1 in 2. Two of these N0 patients (7%) were found at resection to have paraesophageal lymph involvement (N1). Thoracoscopic lymph node staging was accurate in detecting the status of thoracic lymph nodes in 28 of 30 cases (93%). Laparoscopic staging found normal celiac nodes in 13 patients and abnormal lymph nodes in 5. After esophagectomy, final pathologic finding of the 13 N0 patients was N0 in 12 patients and N1 in 1 patient. Thus, laparoscopic lymph node staging was accurate in detecting lymph node status in 17 of 18 patients (94%). Six of 20 patients undergoing laparoscopy had unsuspected celiac axis lymph node involvement missed by standard noninvasive techniques. Three percent of thoracic lymph nodes and 17% of celiac lymph nodes were downstaged after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Thoracoscopic and laparoscopic lymph node staging are more accurate than existing staging methods.
Current status of new drugs and multidisciplinary approaches in patients with carcinoma of the esophagus.
Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Digestive Diseases, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.
The incidence of distal esophageal adenocarcinoma and primary proximal gastric carcinoma has increased substantially in the past 15 years, particularly in North America and in some European countries. Patients with curatively resected cancer consistently have a 10 to 20% 5-year survival rate. Radiation therapy alone should not be recommended. Based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) trial in patients with predominantly squamous cell carcinoma, chemoradiotherapy (fluorouracil [5-FU]/cisplatin + 50 Gy of radiotherapy) has been shown to be superior in this setting. The most active single agents against squamous cell carcinoma are cisplatin, 5-FU, bleomycin, paclitaxel, mitomycin, mitoguazone, vinorelbine, and methotrexate. The most active agents against adenocarcinoma include paclitaxel and probably mitomycin, mitoguazone, and cisplatin. To my knowledge, there is currently no effective postoperative adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both). Evidence that preoperative therapy can prolong survival of patients with potentially resectable carcinoma of the esophagus is lacking. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy can result in an approximately 25% complete pathologic response of the primary tumor. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy, however, results in substantial morbidity and even mortality. A recent single-institution, randomized study comparing surgery alone with preoperative 5-FU/cisplatin/vinblastine and concurrent radiotherapy demonstrated no difference in median survival (18 months). Nevertheless, combined-modality therapy holds promise. Multiple combined-modality strategies have been formulated and will be investigated in the next few years.
An unusual presentation of metastatic colon cancer to the lung.
Zias EA. Owen RP. Borczuk A. Reichel J. Frater RW.
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
A 75-year-old man with a history of resected colon carcinoma presented to his primary care physician because of a new onset of coughing. The patient had expectorated a small piece of solid tissue; pathologic examination of the tissue found it to be consistent with metastatic colon adenocarcinoma. After further work-up, a right upper lobectomy was performed. The surgical specimen removed during the lobectomy showed a tumor that was histologically identical to the patient's prior colonic primary tumor.
No paradoxical bronchodilator response with forced oscillation technique in children with cystic fibrosis.
Hellinckx J. De Boeck K. Demedts M.
Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the forced oscillation technique (FOT) in cystic fibrosis (CF) children and to participate in the discussion about the usefulness of beta2-antagonists in CF. DESIGN: Pulmonary function was measured with spirometry, body plethysmography, and FOT before and after inhalation of 200 microg of albuterol (salbutamol). The following were collected: vital capacity (VC), FEV1, FEV1/VC, airway resistance (Raw), thoracic gas volume, respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and respiratory system reactance (Xrs) at 6 Hz (Rrs6 and Xrs6), and resonance frequency. SETTING: The study was set up at a university hospital with a CF population of 125 children and adolescents. PATIENTS: Data were collected on 20 patients in stable condition able to perform the three lung function tests. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mean baseline values (+/-SD) were 0.36+/-0.15 kPa/L/s for Raw, 0.5+/-0.15 kPa/L/s for Rrs6, and 61+/-22% predicted for FEV1. The relationship between FEV1 and Raw or Rrs6 was poor. Xrs6 and FEV1/VC correlated weakly (r=0.56; p < 0.05). After bronchodilator administration, the mean changes +/-SD in percent of baseline were +3 +/- 11% for FEV1, -16 +/- 22% for Raw, and -16 +/- 9% for Rrs6. In six patients, a paradoxical decrease in FEV1 was measured but an increase in Rrs6 was never found; in two patients, an increase of Raw of < 10% was found. In 13 patients, the decrease of Rrs6 was > 12%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that FOT measurements cannot replace baseline spirometric measurements in CF, but that the evaluation of the effect of beta2-agonists on the airway diameter in CF should include an FOT measurement.
Lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis: consensus conference statement.
Yankaskas JR. Mallory GB Jr.
The first successful heart-lung and lung transplant operations in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were performed in 1983 and 1987, respectively. Lung transplantation is now available at dozens of centers in North America, Europe, and Australia. Recent technical developments and the major limitations of donor organ availability prompted the CF Foundation to sponsor a meeting of 37 experts to evaluate the state of the art in lung transplantation for CF, highlighting areas of consensus, practice variations, and controversy. This document summarizes the work of that group.
Future directions in esophageal cancer.
Luketich JD. Schauer P. Urso K. Kassis E. Ferson P. Keenan R. Landreneau R.
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA 15213-3221, USA.
The incidence of esophageal cancer in the United States has been increasing in recent years. Since multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has produced discouraging results, recent approaches have focused on molecular biological techniques, positron emission tomography, and minimally invasive surgery to improve pretreatment staging which will facilitate a more accurate assessment of new treatment. This article summarizes the results of studies investigating these approaches and outlines the strategy currently used at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Thoracoscopic splanchnicolysis for the relief of chronic pancreatitis pain: experience of a group of pneumologists.
Noppen M. Meysman M. D'Haese J. Vincken W.
Respiratory Division, Academic Hospital AZ-VUB, Brussels, Belgium. email@example.com
Intractable pain is the most invalidating symptom in patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis. Anatomical interruption of the major afferent pain nerves is indicated in severe refractory cases. Among the various techniques and sites of interruption, thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy has emerged as an efficient alternative for the more aggressive open surgical splanchnicectomy, and for the (solely temporarily efficacious) transcutaneous neural blocks, which moreover bear some serious complications. Until now, all reports on thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy were typically surgical, using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery techniques, double-lumen intubation, and so on. In analogy with thoracoscopic upper dorsal T2-T3 sympathicolysis for essential hyperhidrosis, a simplified thoracoscopic splanchnicolysis technique used in 8 patients suffering from either severe refractory chronic pancreatitis pain (7 patients) or postsurgical epigastric pain is described. Pain control was achieved in 5 of the 7 patients with chronic pancreatitis with a short (20+/-8 min) intervention, short hospitalization (2 days), and simple (single-lumen intubation, no chest drains) procedure. Thus, this simplified thoracoscopic splanchnicolysis technique may represent a valid alternative in the often difficult treatment of refractory chronic pancreatitis pain or other upper abdominal pain.
Tracheal bronchus: a cause of prolonged atelectasis in intubated children.
O'Sullivan BP. Frassica JJ. Rayder SM.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, USA.
Tracheal bronchus is a common anomaly that occurs in approximately 2% of people. Two children with multiple medical problems which led to endotracheal intubation are described. The hospital course for each child was complicated by persistent right upper lobe atelectasis. The presence of a tracheal bronchus was not recognized in either case initially; identification of this anatomic variant allowed appropriate changes in airway management. The potential for tracheal bronchus to cause, or be associated with, localized pulmonary problems is reviewed. The diagnosis of tracheal bronchus should be considered early in the course of intubated patients with right upper lobe complications.
Right and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with severe pulmonary disease.
Vizza CD. Lynch JP. Ochoa LL. Richardson G. Trulock EP.
Department of Cardiology, La Sapienza University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of right and left ventricular dysfunction in a prescreened population of patients with severe pulmonary disease, and to analyze the relationship between right and left ventricular function. DESIGN: Retrospective record review of 434 patients with severe pulmonary disease. PATIENTS: Patients with end-stage pulmonary disease, including alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency emphysema, COPD, cystic fibrosis (CF), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary hypertension (primary and Eisenmenger's syndrome), who were evaluated for lung transplantation between January 1993 and December 1995. MEASUREMENTS: Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, radionuclide ventriculography, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, pulmonary hemodynamics, coronary angiography. RESULTS: Right ventricular dysfunction (right ventricular ejection fraction [RVEF]
Validation of a new dyspnea measure: the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire. University of California, San Diego.
Eakin EG. Resnikoff PM. Prewitt LM. Ries AL. Kaplan RM.
Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, University of California San Diego/San Diego State University, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the reliability and validity of a new version of the University of California, San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), a 24-item measure that assesses self-reported shortness of breath while performing a variety of activities of daily living. DESIGN: Patients enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program were asked to complete the SOBQ, the Quality of Well-Being Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and a 6-min walk with modified Borg scale ratings of perceived breathlessness following the walk. SETTING: University medical center pulmonary rehabilitation program. Patients: Thirty-two male subjects and 22 female subjects with a variety of pulmonary diagnoses: COPD (n=28), cystic fibrosis (n=9), and postlung transplant (n=17). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The current version of the SOBQ was compared with the previous version, the format of which often resulted in a significant number of "not applicable" answers. The results demonstrated that the SOBQ had excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.96). The SOBQ was also significantly correlated with all validity criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The SOBQ is a valuable assessment tool in both clinical practice and research in patients with moderate-to-severe lung disease.
Preoperative bronchoscopic assessment of airway invasion by esophageal cancer: a prospective study.
Riedel M. Hauck RW. Stein HJ. Mounyam L. Schulz C. Schomig A. Siewert JR.
Department of Internal Medicine I, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is frequently used to assess invasion of esophageal cancer into the tracheobronchial tree. Prospective studies evaluating the role of bronchoscopy in pretherapeutic staging of esophageal cancer are lacking. Study objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the assessment of airway involvement by esophageal carcinoma and its resectability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, we analyzed 150 bronchoscopies in 116 consecutive patients with potentially operable esophageal carcinoma, and correlated the findings with other staging modalities, intraoperative evaluation, and histopathologic data. RESULTS: One unknown additional bronchial cancer was found. In 32% of bronchoscopies performed in patients with esophageal cancer located above the tracheal bifurcation, some macroscopic abnormality was detected in the trachea and main bronchi, with mobile protrusion of the posterior tracheal wall being the most frequent abnormality (20.7%). When compared with histologic results, normal macroscopic appearance of the trachea and main bronchi had a negative predictive value of 98.5%, but the positive predictive value of all macroscopic abnormalities for the diagnosis of airway involvement was low, particularly after radiation therapy. The overall accuracy of bronchoscopy with multiple brush cytology and biopsy sampling in proving or excluding airway invasion in patients with otherwise operable conditions was 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 88.3 to 99.1%). Bronchoscopy was the sole decisive staging procedure, resulting in exclusion from surgery because of airway invasion, in 9.7% of patients with otherwise potentially operable conditions. The results of bronchoscopy and CT were discordant in 40% of the patients; the specificity and positive predictive value were higher for bronchoscopy than for CT. CONCLUSIONS: When performed as the last investigation in the staging workup, bronchoscopy with biopsy and brush cytology is a very accurate procedure in evaluating possible airway invasion of esophageal cancer; macroscopic findings alone are not reliable.
Orbital herniation associated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.
Lazowick D. Meyer TJ. Pressman M. Peterson D.
Department of Medicine, and Sleep Disorders Center, The Lankenau Hospital and Medical Research Center, Wynnewood, Pa, USA.
A diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea was made after a 52-year-old hypertensive man developed a large intracranial hemorrhage. Therapeutic noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) for obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation was complicated by transient unilateral orbital herniation. As best as can be determined, this represents a new, potentially deleterious side effect of NPPV.
The acute effects of nasal positive pressure ventilation in patients with advanced cystic fibrosis.
Granton JT. Kesten S.
Toronto Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acute effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure secondary to cystic fibrosis. PATIENTS: Eight patients (29+/-5 years of age) with severe airflow limitation (mean FEV1, 24+/-3% predicted) and chronic respiratory failure (PaO2=67+/-15 mm Hg and PaCO2=50+/-4 mm Hg) were evaluated. METHODS: Tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, oxygen saturation, and transcutaneous CO2 (TcCO2) measurements were made over a 20-min period before and after the application of NPPV (inspiratory pressure of 10 to 12 cm H2O and expiratory pressure of 4 to 6 cm H2O). RESULTS: NPPV increased saturation from 88+/-2% to 90+/-1% (p
Effect of high-frequency oral airway and chest wall oscillation and conventional chest physical therapy on expectoration in patients with stable cystic fibrosis.
Scherer TA. Barandun J. Martinez E. Wanner A. Rubin EM.
Division of Pulmonary Diseases, University of Miami School of Medicine, USA.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of high-frequency oral airway oscillation, high-frequency chest wall oscillation, and conventional chest physical therapy (CPT) on weight of expectorated sputum, pulmonary function, and oxygen saturation in outpatients with stable cystic fibrosis (CF). DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial. SETTING: Pediatric pulmonary division of a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Fourteen outpatients with stable CF recruited from the CF center. INTERVENTIONS: Two modes of oral airway oscillation (1: frequency 8 Hz; inspiratory to expiratory [I:E] ratio 9:1; 2: frequency 14 Hz; I:E ratio 8:1), two modes of chest wall oscillation (1: frequency 3 Hz; I:E ratio 4:1; 2: frequency 16 Hz; I:E ratio 1:1, alternating with frequency 1.5 Hz, I:E ratio 6:1), and CPT (clapping, vibration, postural drainage, and encouraged coughing) were applied during the first 20 min of 4 consecutive hours. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Sputum was collected on an hourly basis for a total of 6 consecutive hours. During the first and the last hour, patients collected sputum without having any treatment and underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Oxygen saturation was measured at 30-min intervals during hours 1 to 6. For the first 20 min of the second to the fifth hour, patients received one of the treatments. To assess the effect of the intervention, the weight of expectorated sputum during hours 2 to 6 was averaged and expressed as percentage of the weight expectorated during the first hour (baseline). For the five treatment modalities, mean sputum dry and wet weights ranged between 122% and 185% of baseline. There was no statistically significant difference among the treatment modalities. As measured by sputum wet weight, all oscillatory devices tended to be less effective than CPT (p=0.15). As measured by dry weight, oral airway oscillation at 8 Hz with an I:E ratio of 9:1 and CPT tended to be more effective than the other treatment modalities (p=0.57). None of the treatment modalities had an effect on PFTs and oxygen saturation and all were well tolerated. CONCLUSION: In outpatients with stable CF, high-frequency oscillation applied via the airway opening or via the chest wall and CPT have comparable augmenting effects on expectorated sputum weight without changing PFTs or oxygen saturation. In contrast to CPT, high-frequency oral airway and chest wall oscillations are self-administered, thereby containing health-care expenses.
Risk of death in cystic fibrosis patients with severely compromised lung function.
Milla CE. Warwick WJ.
Cystic Fibrosis Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
BACKGROUND: Lung disease accounts for most of the mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Lung transplantation is an option for patients severely impaired, being recommended when life expectancy is estimated to be
Allograft colonization and infections with pseudomonas in cystic fibrosis lung transplant recipients.
Nunley DR. Grgurich W. Iacono AT. Yousem S. Ohori NP. Keenan RJ. Dauber JH.
Division of Transplantation Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of pseudomonal infection, colonization, and inflammation in the allograft of lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis (CF) as compared with recipients with other end-stage lung disease. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: University medical center transplant service. PATIENTS: All patients with CF and chronic pseudomonal infection (n=62) and patients with nonseptic end-stage lung disease (n=52) receiving a double lung transplant between October 1983 and March 1996. RESULTS: Fifty lung transplant recipients with CF survived beyond postoperative day (POD) 15 and were subject to sequential bronchoscopy with BAL. Forty-four CF lung transplant recipients had Pseudomonas isolated from the allograft by median POD 15 as compared with 21 non-CF lung transplant recipients (p
Presentation and surgical management of bronchogenic and esophageal duplication cysts in adults.
Cioffi U. Bonavina L. De Simone M. Santambrogio L. Pavoni G. Testori A. Peracchia A.
Department of General and Oncologic Surgery, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico VIACCS, University of Milan, Italy.
OBJECTIVE: Bronchogenic and esophageal duplication cysts are congenital anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree and foregut that are often asymptomatic at initial presentation in adults. Surgery is always recommended, even for patients with asymptomatic disease, because of the possible development of symptoms and complications during the natural course of the disease and because definitive diagnosis can be established only on surgical specimen. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with bronchogenic and esophageal duplication cysts were treated in our institution over the last 2 decades. Ten patients (37%) were asymptomatic at initial presentation. Chest pain and dysphagia were the most common complaints in symptomatic patients affected by bronchogenic and duplication cysts, respectively. RESULTS: A complete excision of the cyst was performed in 26 cases, whereas one patient with intrapulmonary cyst underwent a right upper pulmonary lobectomy. A posterolateral thoracotomy was performed in 23 patients, and a video-assisted thoracoscopy using a three-port technique was performed in the last 4 patients. No postoperative morbidity was recorded. All patients, except one, were asymptomatic at a median follow-up time of 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery is the treatment of choice for bronchogenic and esophageal duplication cysts. Video-assisted thoracoscopy should represent the first-line approach in these patients.
Large airway disease associated with inflammatory bowel disease.
Spira A. Grossman R. Balter M.
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Lung disease is a rare complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein is a series of seven IBD patients who developed new, persistent and unexplained symptoms of respiratory disease, particularly chronic productive cough. Using a CT scan of the chest, a diagnosis of bronchiectasis was made in five patients, while the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis was made in two patients. Factors, other than IBD, that could account for pulmonary disease in these patients were absent. Several important clinical patterns for IBD-associated large airway disease were uncovered and are reviewed in light of earlier case reports in the medical literature. A discussion regarding the possible pathogenesis of IBD-associated airway disease follows.