Intestinal tumorigenesis in compound mutant mice of both Dpc4 (Smad4) and Apc genes.
Takaku K. Oshima M. Miyoshi H. Matsui M. Seldin MF. Taketo MM.
Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute (Merck), Japan.
The DPC4 (SMAD4) gene plays a key role in the TGFbeta signaling pathway. We inactivated its mouse homolog Dpc4 (Smad4). The homozygous mutants were embryonic lethal, whereas the heterozygotes showed no abnormality. We then introduced the Dpc4 mutation into the Apc(delta716) knockout mice, a model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. Because both Apc and Dpc4 are located on chromosome 18, we constructed compound heterozygotes carrying both mutations on the same chromosome by meiotic recombination. In such mice, intestinal polyps developed into more malignant tumors than those in the simple Apc(delta716) heterozygotes, showing an extensive stromal cell proliferation, submucosal invasion, cell type heterogeneity, and in vivo transplantability. These results indicate that mutations in DPC4 (SMAD4) play a significant role in the malignant progression of colorectal tumors.
Cyclooxygenase regulates angiogenesis induced by colon cancer cells.
Tsujii M. Kawano S. Tsuji S. Sawaoka H. Hori M. DuBois RN.
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, VA Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.
To explore the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) in endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis, we have used two in vitro model systems involving coculture of endothelial cells with colon carcinoma cells. COX-2-overexpressing cells produce prostaglandins, proangiogenic factors, and stimulate both endothelial migration and tube formation, while control cells have little activity. The effect is inhibited by antibodies to combinations of angiogenic factors, by NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor), and by aspirin. NS-398 does not inhibit production of angiogenic factors or angiogenesis induced by COX-2-negative cells. Treatment of endothelial cells with aspirin or a COX-1 antisense oligonucleotide inhibits COX-1 activity/expression and suppresses tube formation. Cyclooxygenase regulates colon carcinoma-induced angiogenesis by two mechanisms: COX-2 can modulate production of angiogenic factors by colon cancer cells, while COX-1 regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells.