FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy and PIXE analysis applied to gallstones specimens.
Paluszkiewicz C. Kwiatek WM. Galka M. Sobieraj D. Wentrup-Byrne E.
Regional Laboratory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used as the main analytical techniques for the determination of human gallstone structural composition. These techniques provide rapid, qualitative and quantitative information about stone structure. The gallstones were obtained from. 40 patients during both surgical operations and laparoscopy. The results of FT-Raman and FT-IR analysis allowed to distinguish of four main groups of gallstones according their cholesterol and bilirubinate salt content. Our studies were extended to trace element analysis by means of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). On 14 elements detected, six elements Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were chosen for quantitative analysis. The concentration levels of these elements varied depending the chemical structure of the gallstones. The relationship between Ca and Cu appears to be of particular significance. In this paper a correlation between stone structure and trace element concentrations is presented.
FT-IR microspectroscopic imaging of human carcinoma thin sections based on pattern recognition techniques.
Lasch P. Naumann D.
Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany.
FT-IR microspectroscopic maps of unstained thin sections from human melanoma and colon carcinoma tissues were obtained on a conventional infrared microscope equipped with an automatic x, y stage. Mapped infrared data were analyzed by different image re-assembling techniques, namely functional group mapping ("chemical mapping") and, for the first time by cluster analysis, principal component analysis and artificial neural networks. The output values of the different classifiers were recombined with the original spatial information to construct IR-images whose color or gray tones were based on the spatial distribution of individual spectral patterns. While the functional group mapping technique could not reliably differentiate between the different tissue regions, the approach based on pattern recognition yielded images with a high contrast that confirmed standard histopathological techniques. The new technique turned out to be particularly helpful to improve discrimination between different types of tissue structures in general, and to increase image contrast between normal and cancerous regions of a given tissue sample.