Intraoperative endoscopy in the management of patients with colorectal disease.
North JH Jr. Rodriguez-Bigas MA. Petrelli NJ.
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Division of Surgical Oncology, Buffalo, New York, USA.
Preoperative colonoscopy is recommended in the evaluation of patients with lower gastrointestinal malignancies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the indications and impact on patient management in patients undergoing intraoperative endoscopy. This is a retrospective review of patient charts from February 1972 to July 1994 of 69 intraoperative endoscopic procedures performed in 54 patients during 54 operative sessions. The results of intraoperative endoscopy affected patient management in 29 of the 54 operative sessions (54%). This included 9 cases (17%) in which the planned surgical procedure was altered. There were no complications related to the endoscopies and 99% were completed successfully. Intraoperative endoscopy can provide important information that can alter the surgical management of patients with colorectal disease. This technique should be considered when intraoperative palpation fails to identify synchronous lesions identified on preoperative studies or in cases where the preoperative study is suboptimal.
A human gastric cancer cell line possesses a functional receptor for gastrin-releasing peptide.
Bold RJ. Kim HJ. Ishizuka J. Townsend CM Jr. Thompson JC.
Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis-East Bay, Oakland 94602, USA.
Bombesin (BBS) exhibits diverse biological functions including those of neurotransmitter, regulator of gastrointestinal hormone release, and mitogen. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, the mammalian equivalent of BBS) is found in mucosal cells of the gastric fundus and antrum. We determined whether a human gastric cancer cell line (SIIA) expresses a functional GRP-receptor (GRP-R). BBS increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), and a specific GRP-R antagonist, ([D-Phe6, Des-Met14]-BBS (6-14)-ethylamide), blocked BBS-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. SIIA cells possess GRP-R mRNA by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Furthermore, these cells possess an 80-kDa cell surface protein that specifically binds BBS with two high-binding affinities (Kd1 = 0.6 nM, Kd2 = 6.7 nM). These findings indicate that SIIA cells possess a GRP-R that is capable of physiological signal transduction, though the cellular response remains unknown.
Efficacy of intravenous granisetron to control nausea and vomiting during multiple cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Ritter HL Jr. Gralla RJ. Hall SW. Wada JK. Friedman C. Hand L. Fitts D.
Toledo Clinic, Inc., Hematology-Oncology Department, Ohio 43623, USA.
The safety and efficacy of granisetron (10 micrograms/kg and 40 micrograms/kg) were evaluated during a second (n = 393) and third (n = 200) cycle of chemotherapy in this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. Granisetron was administered as a single intravenous dose before the start of cisplatin chemotherapy (> or = 60 mg/m2). Total control (no vomiting, no retching, no nausea, and no use of antiemetic rescue medication) after the first 24 hr following chemotherapy was achieved in 40% and 49% of patients in Cycles 2 and 3, respectively, for the 10 micrograms/kg group, and in 42% and 38% of patients in Cycles 2 and 3, respectively, for the 40 micrograms/kg group. Both dose levels of granisetron were well tolerated. The results demonstrate comparable efficacy between the 10 micrograms/kg and 40 micrograms/kg doses of granisetron in preventing nausea and vomiting during repeat cycles of high-dose cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The results of this study show that granisetron 10 micrograms/kg is safe and well tolerated, and remains effective with repeat cycle use.
Phase I trial of uracil-tegafur (UFT) plus oral leucovorin: 28-day schedule.
Pazdur R. Lassere Y. Diaz-Canton E. Ho DH.
Division of Medicine, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.
UFT [Taiho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; (BMS-200604), Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ], a fluorouracil prodrug, is an oral 4:1 molar concentration of uracil plus tegafur. This study examined the dose-limiting toxic effects and maximum tolerated dose of UFT plus leucovorin administered for 28 consecutive days followed by a 7-day rest period. A course of therapy was repeated every 35 days. UFT dose levels examined were 200 mg/m2/day, with planned escalations to 250, 300, 350, and 400 mg/m2/day; the leucovorin dose remained at 150 mg/day. Three patients were initially enrolled at each UFT dose level. The total daily doses of both UFT and leucovorin were divided into three doses administered every 8 hr. Diarrhea became the dose-limiting toxicity at 400 mg/m2/day UFT, with grade 3 diarrhea noted in 2 of the 3 patients receiving that dose. To further define a phase II UFT starting dose, 3 additional patients were entered at the 350 mg/m2 level; 3 of the 6 patients treated at this level developed grade 3 nonhematological toxic effects. No partial or complete responses were observed. The recommended phase II UFT starting dose is 300 mg/m2/day plus 150 mg/day leucovorin. Since neutropenia, significant mucositis, and "hand-foot syndrome" were not observed with UFT plus leucovorin, the toxicity profile of this regimen appears favorable compared with that of intravenous regimens of fluorouracil plus leucovorin. This phase I trial of UFT served as the basis for a phase II trial, current phase III trials, and a national adjuvant therapy trial of UFT for high-risk colon cancer patients.
Phase II trial of docetaxel (Taxotere) for untreated advanced colorectal carcinoma.
Clark TB. Kemeny NE. Conti JA. Huang Y. Andre AM. Stockman J.
Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York, USA.
The antimicrotubule agent docetaxel (Taxotere), a semisynthetic taxoid, has demonstrated antitumor activity against colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro, and in murine tumor models. We sought to characterize its activity in a group of previously untreated patients with colorectal carcinoma. Eighteen previously untreated patients with advanced, measurable colorectal carcinoma were treated with a 60-min intravenous infusion of docetaxel with a dose of 100 mg/m2 administered every 21 days. Routine premedication with diphenhydramine was given. Patients were required to have normal organ function and a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) > or = 60%. No complete response (CR) or partial responses (PR) were observed. Median survival was 13 months, despite a median time to progression of only 1.3 months. Neutropenia was the most common dose-limiting toxicity, resulting in 5 episodes of febrile neutropenia requiring hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. One patient experienced a grade 4 hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) requiring treatment termination. No toxic deaths occurred. Despite encouraging preclinical data, docetaxel is an inactive drug in advanced colorectal cancer when given in the dose and on the schedule examined in the present study, and has significant, although reversible, toxicities.
Biomodulation of Fluorouracil in colorectal cancer.
Ardalan B. Luis R. Jaime M. Franceschi D.
Department of Medicine, University of Miami, School of Medicine, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Florida, USA.
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) remains the agent of choice for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Research has focused on the biomodulation of 5-FU in order to attempt to improve the cytotoxity and therapeutic effectiveness of this drug in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Modulation of 5-FU by methotrexate (MTX), trimetrexate (TMTX), interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), leucovorin (LV), or N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-asparte acid (PALA) has produced higher response rates than those observed with 5-FU alone. Methotrexate may improve the durability of response to or survival with 5-FU, but with inferior results compared with those in trials of 5-FU and leucovorin. Trimetrexate produces a number of responses, and further phase III trials are in progress to confirm the results of promising phase II trials with this drug. IFN-alpha has shown therapeutic efficiency when combined with 5-FU alone or with 5-FU and leucovorin, but latest studies with these combinations have shown increased toxicity. Initial single-institution phase I trials with 5-FU and PALA reported promising responses, but the latter responses with PALA were not substantiated in randomized multicenter trials. Leucovorin enhances the cytotoxic activity of 5-FU in vitro and in vivo, and several clinical trials have shown improved response rates and possible trends in improved survival when such therapy is compared with the use of 5-FU as a single-agent. More recent randomized trials have focused their attention on determining the optimal dose and schedule with this combination for producing a better clinical response with minimal toxicity. Schedules using infusional 5-FU appear to be the most active regimens when 5-FU is used as a single agent, as demonstrated by recent randomized trials. The Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) have performed separate randomized trials and have shown that the optimal regimens employ infusional 5-FU as a single agent, and that these are the least toxic regimens, perhaps more effective, and associated with a better quality of life. Future studies will focus on infusional regimens involving either short-term, high-dose protracted or long-term, low-dose protracted infusion of 5-FU, since these regimens have shown the most favorable toxicity spectrum and produced the longest survival times. Future research will also focus on the evaluation of various methods of delivery of 5-FU, including oral administration of the drug in combination with compounds that can modify its catabolism.