Influence of exposure and infusion times on the cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics of cis-malonato[(4R, 5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolane]platinum(II) .
Kim HT. Kim DK. Cho YB. Kim TS. Jung I. Kim KH. Heo DS. Bang YJ. Shin SG. Kim NK.
Life Science Research Center, Sunkyong Industries, Kyungki-Do, Korea.
The effect of exposure time on the in vitro cytotoxicity of a new platinum complex, cis-malonato[(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolan e]platinum(II) (SKI 2053R) and cisplatin (CDDP) toward two human lung-adenocarcinoma cell lines (PC-9, PC-14) and two human stomach-adenocarcinoma cell lines (KATO III, MKN-45) was investigated by variation of the exposure time (1, 4, 12, and 24 h) and drug concentration to yield a constant product of drug concentration times exposure time (C x T). Exposure of cancer cells to low concentrations of SKI 2053R for 12 or 24 h resulted in a greater killing effect than did 1- or 4-h exposure to 24- or 6-fold higher concentrations; the inhibitory effects of SKI 2053R on the colony formation of all tumor cell lines except for KATO III were significantly increased with increasing exposure time (P < 0.05). However, the inhibitory effects of CDDP against all tumor cell lines tested except for PC-14 were inversely correlated with increasing exposure time (P < 0.05). The intracellular accumulation of SKI 2053R and CDDP was measured under the same conditions used in the cell-survival assay using MKN-45 cells. The amount of platinum accumulated from SKI 2053R into MKN-45 cells was greater for the treatment involving low concentrations and long-term exposures (12 and 24 h) than for that using high concentrations and short-term exposures (1 and 4 h) at the constant C x T values; however, the increased accumulation of CDDP was more prominent as the concentration was increased, even if the exposure time became shorter. The pharmacokinetics studies of SKI 2053R following 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-h infusions were performed in beagle dogs. A single dose of SKI 2053R (5.0 mg/kg) was successively given over various infusion periods to three beagle dogs at 3-week intervals. The peak levels of ultrafiltrable platinum observed for SKI 2053R at the 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-h infusions were 3.10+/-0.49 (mean +/- SD), 1.24+/-0.06, 0.43+/-0.07, and 0.25+/-0.04 microg/ml, respectively. The mean binding ratios of platinum from SKI 2053R to plasma protein at the end of 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-h infusions were approximately 91%, 73%, 53%, and 51%, respectively. The steady-state level of free platinum was maintained during long-term infusions (12 and 24 h) after short periods (1-3 h) from the start of the infusion. This study strongly suggests that the therapeutic efficacy of SKI 2053R given by continuous long-term infusion should be investigated in future clinical studies.
Cisplatin, epirubicin, and lonidamine combination regimen as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a pilot study.
Dogliotti L. Danese S. Berruti A. Zola P. Buniva T. Bottini A. Richiardi G. Moro G. Farris A. Bau MG. Porcile G.
Universita di Torino, Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Azienda Ospedaliera San Luigi, Orbassano, Italy.
We assessed the activity and tolerability of a cisplatin, epirubicin, and lonidamine combination regimen as first-line chemotherapy in 28 advanced breast cancer patients. The schedule of treatment was as follows: 60 mg/ m2 epirubicin followed by 40 mg/m2 cisplatin given on days 1 and 2 every 21 days, with 450 mg lonidamine being given per os (three tablets) on days of chemotherapy administration and in the period intervening between one cycle and the next. Patients received a median of 5 (range 1-6) cycles. Overall, 22 patients were evaluable for response and 28, for toxicity. Four patients refused to continue the treatment after the first course, one was lost to follow-up, and one died due to toxicity (septic shock). The incidence of grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting was found to be greater than that expected with epirubicin and lonidamine alone. The addition of cisplatin resulted in an increase in platelet and hemoglobin toxicities, whereas the WBC toxicity did not differ from that expected with epirubicin and lonidamine. The hematological toxicity was found to be cumulative, leading to treatment delay in about 50% of patients at the fifth and sixth courses. The activity of this cytotoxic regimen was noteworthy, with the overall response rate being 81.8% (31.8% complete responses and 50.0% partial responses) in evaluable patients. This response rate decreased to 64.2% when all registered patients were included according to an intent-to-treat analysis. In conclusion, the association of cisplatin, epirubicin, and lonidamine given on the schedule described herein, appears to be very active but substantially toxic. We are now testing this combination in a randomized comparison, with the cisplatin dose being reduced to 30 mg/m2 given on days 1 and 2.
Reduced activity of topoisomerase II in an Adriamycin-resistant human stomach-adenocarcinoma cell line.
Son YS. Suh JM. Ahn SH. Kim JC. Yi JY. Hur KC. Hong WS. Muller MT. Chung IK.
Laboratory of Cell Biology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul.
A human stomach-adenocarcinoma cell line (MKN-45) was selected for resistance to Adriamycin by stepwise exposure to increasing concentrations of this agent. The resulting cell line (MKN/ADR) exhibited a high level of cross-resistance to topoisomerase II (topo II)-targeted drugs such as Adriamycin, mitoxantrone, and etoposide but showed no cross-resistance to other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil, or mitomycin-C. P-glycoprotein encoded by the mdr-1 gene was not overexpressed in the MKN/ADR cell line. The doubling time of the MKN/ADR cell line (2.1 days) increased only slightly as compared with that of the MKN cell line (1.7 days). The patterns of cross-resistance to various chemotherapeutic agents led us to examine the cellular contents of topo II in both the drug-sensitive and the drug-resistant cells. Extractable topo II enzyme activity was 3-fold lower in MKN/ADR cells as compared with the parental MKN cells. Levels of topoisomerase I (topo I) catalytic activity were similar in both wild-type MKN and drug-resistant MKN/ADR cells. Southern-blot analysis of genomic DNA probed with topo IIalpha or IIbeta showed no sign of either gene rearrangement or hypermethylation. Northern-blot analysis revealed that both topo IIalpha and topo IIbeta mRNA transcripts were essentially identical in the MKN and MKN/ADR cells. In contrast, Western-blot analysis revealed an approximately 20-fold lower level of topo IIalpha in drug-resistant cells as compared with drug-sensitive cells, whereas topo IIbeta levels were similar in both lines. Moreover, the amount of in vivo topo IIalpha-DNA covalent complexes formed in the presence of etoposide was also approximately 20-fold lower in drug-resistant cells. No mutation was detected in the promoter region of the topo IIalpha gene in resistant cells as compared with sensitive cells. Thus, low levels of topo IIalpha polypeptide cannot be ascribed to changes in the mRNA levels. Collectively, the data suggest that a quantitative reduction in topo IIalpha may contribute to the resistance of MKN cells to Adriamycin and other topo II-targeted drugs.
Phase II trial of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin, carboplatin and etoposide in stage IIIB and IV small-cell lung cancer. Fukuoka Lung Cancer Study Group.
Nakanishi Y. Kawarada Y. Hirose N. Ninomiya K. Miyazaki M. Miyazaki N. Kurita Y. Kanegae H. Ohgushi O. Ogata K. Yamazaki H. Inutsuka S. Hara N.
Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. email@example.com
PURPOSE: A phase II trial combining cisplatin, carboplatin and etoposide was conducted in previously untreated patients with stage IIIB and IV small-cell lung cancer, in an attempt to increase response rates and prolong survival. METHODS: Previously untreated patients with small-cell lung cancer, with measurable disease, aged < or = 72 years, performance status < or = 2, and adequate hematologic, hepatic and renal function were enrolled in the study. They were treated with 80 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1, 100 mg/m2 carboplatin on days 2, 3 and 8, and 50 mg/m2 etoposide on days 1, 2, 3 and 8. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients (20 with stage IIIB and 26 with stage IV disease) were enrolled in the study. A total of 186 courses of chemotherapy were given, and the dose was reduced in 27 courses (15%). The chemotherapy was repeated for four or more courses in 30 patients. There were 10 complete responses and 32 partial responses, for a total response rate of 91% (95% confidence interval, 79% to 98%). The median survival time and 2-year survival rates were 18 months and 22% for stage IIIB disease, and 14 months and 15% for stage IV disease. Major side effects were hematologic: leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia of grade 3 or more occurred in 48%, 46%, and 43% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The three-drug regimen of cisplatin, carboplatin and etoposide is feasible and active against small-cell lung cancer.
Clinical and pharmacokinetic studies of high-dose levamisole in combination with 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced cancer.
Reid JM. Kovach JS. O'Connell MJ. Bagniewski PG. Moertel CG.
Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
PURPOSE: To determine the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) and activity of levamisole administered concurrently with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a standard 5-day course. To determine the pharmacokinetics of levamisole during the course of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Levamisole was administered to 38 patients orally three times a day for 5 days concurrently with a course of 5-FU administered daily by rapid intravenous injection for 5 days. Toxicity was evaluated in 20 patients who received escalating doses of levamisole. The activity of the combination was evaluated in 18 patients who received levamisole at the MTD with 5-FU. The pharmacokinetics of levamisole were characterized in ten patients at the MTD level. RESULTS: Intractable vomiting, confusion and vertigo were the major dose-limiting toxicities. The MTD of oral levamisole was 100 mg/m2 administered three times a day concurrently with 450 mg/m2 per day intravenous 5-FU for 5 consecutive days. Partial responses lasting 5 and 11 months were observed in 2/18 patients with measurable disease at the MTD. Peak plasma concentrations of 1 microg/ml (range 0.6-1.3 microg/ml) were achieved 90 min (range 60-360 min) after an oral dose of 100 mg/m2 levamisole with a 3.5-fold accumulation noted following 4 days of administration. Peak plasma concentrations of p-hydroxylevamisole were about 5% of parent drug. Little parent drug (2-5%) was detected in urine. CONCLUSIONS: Levamisole may be administered safely with 5-FU at doses which are up to four to five times greater than those presently given in conventional regimens. The recommended dose of levamisole combined with 5-FU for future research protocols is 75 mg/m2 t.i.d for 5 days.
Irinotecan (CPT-11) in combination with weekly administration of cisplatin (CDDP) for non-small-cell lung cancer.
Kobayashi K. Shinbara A. Kamimura M. Takeda Y. Kudo K. Kabe J. Hibino S. Hino M. Shibuya M. Kudoh S.
Department of Respiratory Medicine, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo.
PURPOSE: CPT-11 (60 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15) in combination with CDDP (80 mg/m2 on day 1) has shown promising antitumor activity for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) are leukopenia and diarrhea, with a wide variation among patients. To estimate weekly CDDP administration in combination with CPT-11, a phase I study for patients with advanced NSCLC was conducted. METHODS: Patients were treated with CPT-11 at a fixed dose of 60 mg/m2 together with CDDP at 27 mg/m2 (level 1, 6 patients), 33 mg/m2 (level 2, 12 patients), and 40 mg/m2 (level 3, 6 patients) with 1600 ml hydration on days 1, 8 and 15 over 4 weeks. During the treatment course, drug was not administered on the day it was due in the presence of leukopenia (< 3000/ml) and/or diarrhea. RESULTS: The planned administration was completed in 5 of 6 patients at level 1, 6 of 12 patients at level 2, and 2 of 6 patients at level 3. The most common toxicity observed was leukopenia (five patients with grade 3 and one patient with grade 4). Leukopenia was considered to be a DLT, and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was level 2. Although there were patients who suffered from diarrhea (four patients with higher than grade 2), diarrhea was judged not to be a DLT with this weekly regimen. Nausea and vomiting were mild. Pharmacokinetic analysis of free platinum from CDDP demonstrated that the area under the curve (AUC) from 33 mg/m2 CDDP was 0.92 +/- 0.29 microg/ml h. In 13 patients evaluated for response, the response rate was 54%. CONCLUSION: The value of weekly administration of CDDP in combination with CPT-11 was shown by (1) diarrhea not being dose-limiting, (2) mild nausea, (3) well-maintained AUC of free platinum, and (4) promising activity.