Role of thromboxane and leukotriene B4 in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after oesophagectomy.
Schilling MK. Gassmann N. Sigurdsson GH. Regli B. Stoupis C. Furrer M. Signer C. Redaelli C. Buchler MW.
Department of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Bern-Inselspital, Switzerland.
We have studied prospectively the clinical course and serum concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in patients developing adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after oesophagectomy. The clinical course was assessed according to a validated ARDS score, and intra- and postoperative measurements of TxB2 and LTB4 in pre- and post-pulmonary blood were performed in 18 patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal carcinoma and 11 control patients undergoing thoracotomy and pulmonary resection. Six of 18 patients undergoing oesophagectomy, but no control patient, developed ARDS. The ARDS score was highest on day 8 after operation. Only patients with ARDS had a significant postoperative increase in post-pulmonary, but not pre-pulmonary, TxB2 concentrations (P < 0.05 vs patients without ARDS). This study provides evidence that TxA2, originating from the lungs, was associated with the development of ARDS after oesophageal resection. In view of the high incidence of ARDS after oesophagectomy (10-30%), prophylactic treatment of patients undergoing oesophageal resection with clinically applicable thromboxane synthetase inhibitors may be warranted.
Effect of dexamethasone on postoperative emesis and pain.
Liu K. Hsu CC. Chia YY.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Veteran General Hospital-Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.
In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we have evaluated the effect of preoperative administration of dexamethasone on postoperative vomiting and pain in 60 women undergoing general anaesthesia for major gynaecological surgery. Dexamethasone 10 mg (group D) or saline (group S) was administered i.v. in a double-blind manner during induction of anaesthesia. Postoperative pain relief was controlled with bolus doses of morphine using an i.v. patient-controlled analgesia device, and patients were assessed for incidence of vomiting, sedation score, verbal pain rating score, time to first morphine demand and morphine consumption at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after surgery. Six patients in group D and 19 in group S experienced vomiting at least once within the 24-h postoperative period; dexamethasone was effective in reducing the overall incidence of vomiting from 63.3% to 20.0% (P < 0.01). Other variables were similar between the groups, and the influence of dexamethasone on postoperative pain was minimal.
Combining propofol with morphine in patient-controlled analgesia to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Bree SE. West MJ. Taylor PA. Kestin IG.
Department of Anaesthesia, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth.
We have studied the antiemetic effects of propofol when mixed with morphine in a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump after major gynaecological surgery. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled study, 50 women, ASA I or II, received a standardized anaesthetic comprising thiopental, morphine, atracurium, nitrous oxide and oxygen with enflurane, and received postoperative PCA with morphine mixed with either 1% propofol or lvelip. The PCA bolus was morphine 1 mg with propofol 5 mg or lvelip 0.5 ml, with a lockout time of 5 min. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were assessed by the nursing staff using a four-point ordinal scale and by the patient using a visual analogue scale for 48 h after surgery. The two groups were similar in the potential factors influencing the incidence of PONV. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the study measurements of PONV. There were, no side effects after propofol. Propofol, when mixed with morphine in this dose combination for PCA, did not decrease the incidence of nausea and vomiting in women undergoing major gynaecological surgery.
Prophylaxis for vomiting by children after tonsillectomy: ondansetron compared with perphenazine.
Splinter WM. Rhine EJ.
Department of Anaesthesia, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada.
We have compared the effects of ondansetron and perphenazine on vomiting after tonsillectomy in 216 healthy children, aged 2-12 yr. The study was randomized, stratified, blocked and double blind. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol i.v. or by inhalation of halothane and nitrous oxide. Ondansetron 150 micrograms kg-1 or perphenazine 70 micrograms kg-1 was administered i.v. after induction of anaesthesia in a double-blind manner. Perioperative management of emesis, pain, fluids and patients discharge were standardized. Ondansetron and perphenazine had similar effects on postoperative vomiting (44% vs 41%; ondansetron vs perphenazine P = 0.77). By logistic regression analysis, the only significant predictor of postoperative vomiting was sex, that is males had a greater incidence of vomiting (49% vs 35%; P = 0.016). In-hospital vomiting was associated with a prolongation of stay in the day-care surgical unit of 7 min per episode of vomiting (P = 0.015). We conclude that ondansetron and perphenazine had similar effects on vomiting in children after tonsillectomy in a day-case setting.
Effects of preinduction and intraoperative warming during major laparotomy.
Bock M. Muller J. Bach A. Bohrer H. Martin E. Motsch J.
Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
We have investigated the influence of active warming before and during operation on blood loss, transfusion requirements, duration of stay in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) and perioperative costs in 40 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Patients were allocated randomly to one of two groups: in the study group (n = 20), patients were actively warmed using forced air for 30 min before induction of general anaesthesia and during anaesthesia. Passive protection against heat loss consisted of circulating water mattresses, blankets and fluid warming devices, and was used both in the active warming group and in the control group (n = 20). At the end of surgery the change in core temperature was significantly less in the group of actively warmed patients (0.5 (SD 0.8) degree C vs 1.5 (0.8) degree C; P < or = 0.01). Blood loss and transfusion requirements were less in the actively warmed patients, who had a shorter duration of stay in the PACU (94 (SD 42) min vs 217 (169) min; P < or = 0.01) and a 24% reduction in total anaesthetic costs.
Bovine haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier for patients undergoing haemodilution before liver resection.
Standl T. Burmeister MA. Horn EP. Wilhelm S. Knoefel WT. Schulte am Esch J.
Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
We have studied the use of ultrapurified polymerized bovine haemoglobin (HBOC-201) in patients undergoing preoperative haemodilution before liver resection. After autologous blood donation of 1 litre, 12 patients (six males, six females, mean age 59 (35-69) yr) received Ringer's lactate solution 2 litre and, in a random design, 6% hydroxyethyl starch 70,000/0.5 (HES) 3 ml kg-1 or HBOC-201 0.4 g kg-1 within 30 min. Blood samples were obtained for blood chemistry, co-oximetry, haematology, coagulation profiles and immunology examinations before operation, on the day of surgery, on days 2-4 and 7 after operation, on the discharge day and 3 months after operation. There were no differences in patient characteristics, blood loss, amount of solutions infused, transfused allogeneic blood or duration of hospital stay. There were no local or systemic allergic reactions with infusion of HES or HBOC-201. Patients receiving HBOC-201 developed more pronounced leucocytosis and reticulocytosis during the early postoperative days compared with HES-treated patients. The mean maximum plasma haemoglobin concentration was 1.0 (SD 0.2) g dl-1 at the end of infusion of HBOC-201 was 8.5 h. Patients in both groups experienced temporary changes in liver enzymes and coagulation variables which returned to normal before discharge. Urinalysis revealed no difference between groups and no free haemoglobin was detected in urine. Patients receiving HBOC-201 showed no IgE and only a slight increase in IgG titres to HBOC-201 on the day of discharge; these were not detectable at 3 months. Single-dose administration of HBOC-201 was well tolerated by patients undergoing elective liver resection surgery and appears to be safe as a substitute during preoperative haemodilution.
Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in female patients during menstruation: comparison of droperidol, metoclopramide and granisetron.
Fujii Y. Toyooka H. Tanaka H.
Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Tsukuba Institute of Clinical Medicine, Ibaraki, Japan.
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is high in women during menstruation. We have compared the efficacy of droperidol, metoclopramide and granisetron in the prevention of PONV in female patients during menstruation undergoing major gynaecological surgery. In a randomized, double-blind study, 120 patients received droperidol 25 micrograms kg-1, metoclopramide 0.2 mg kg-1 or granisetron 40 micrograms kg-1 (n = 40 in each group) i.v. immediately before induction of anaesthesia. A standard general anaesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia were used throughout. There was a complete response, defined as no PONV and no administration of rescue medication, during the 24-h observation period in 45% of patients in the droperidol group, 38% in the metoclopramide group and 70% in the granisetron group (P = 0.021 vs droperidol, P = 0.003 vs metoclopramide). There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events between groups. We conclude that the prophylactic antiemetic efficacy of granisetron was superior to that of droperidol or metoclopramide for prevention of PONV in women during menstruation.
Propofol and electroconvulsive therapy in a patient at risk from acute intermittent porphyria.
Shaw IH. McKeith IG.
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne.
A severely depressed 57-yr-old woman at risk from acute intermittent porphyria presented for a course of electroconvulsive therapy. With propofol as the induction agent the course of electroconvulsive therapy was both uneventful and successful.