The incidence and natural course of transfusion-associated GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in a cohort of thalassemic patients. The Cooleycare Cooperative Group.
Prati D. Zanella A. Bosoni P. Rebulla P. Farma E. De Mattei C. Capelli C. Mozzi F. Gallisai D. Magnano C. Melevendi C. Sirchia G.
Centro Trasfusionale e di Immunologia dei Trapianti, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milano, Italy.
To evaluate the risk of transmitting blood-borne GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) and to define the natural course of infection, we performed a prospective study in a cohort of multitransfused beta-thalassemics during a 6-year follow-up period. We analyzed serum samples of 150 patients collected at 3-year intervals from 1990 to 1996. GBV-C/HGV RNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and antibodies to E2-protein by an enzyme immunoassay. At baseline, 14.5% of patients had viremia and 18.5% anti-E2. None of the patients with anti-E2 in 1990 subsequently became viremic. Of the 100 GBV-C/HGV RNA-, anti-E2- patients, 10 acquired infection during follow-up, as indicated by positivity of GBV-C/HGV RNA (n = 2), anti-E2 (n = 7), or both markers (n = 1) in 1996. The incidence was 1.7 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 3). Since approximately 19,000 blood units were transfused to these patients during follow-up, the risk of infection was 5.3 in 10,000 units (95% CI, 2 to 8.5). Six of 22 viremic patients cleared the virus during follow-up; 4 of them became anti-E2+. Twelve of 28 patients lost anti-E2 reactivity during follow-up. In conclusion, more than 25% of infections resolve within 6 years; the presence of anti-E2 seems to be protective against infection. Anti-E2 reactivity may decrease with time.
A prospective multicenter study of hepatocellular carcinoma in italian hemophiliacs with chronic hepatitis C. The Study Group of the Association of Italian Hemophilia Centers.
Tradati F. Colombo M. Mannucci PM. Rumi MG. De Fazio C. Gamba G. Ciavarella N. Rocino A. Morfini M. Scaraggi A. Taioli E.
Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione Italiana Ricerca Cancro-University Research Unit on Liver Cancer, Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Milan, Maggiore Hospital, Milan, Italy.
To assess the risk factors, natural history, and eligibility for curative treatment of early-detected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 385 hemophiliacs who were treated with blood or plasma derivates for at least 10 years and had persistently elevated aminotransferase values underwent an annual screening with an abdominal ultrasound examination and measurement of the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level. Of these, 355 had serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), 29 had anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and one had HBsAg alone; 141 had serum antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV). During 48 months of follow-up study, six patients developed HCC. All HCC patients had a HCV-related cirrhosis and had been exposed to HCV risk at a median age of 40 years. All patients had a multicentric tumor, which was not eligible for curative treatment. Univariate analysis showed age, cirrhosis, and baseline AFP levels to be significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC. By multivariate analysis, the risk of HCC was infinite in patients with cirrhosis, 31.0 for those with baseline AFP higher than 11 ng/mL, and 17.9 for those more than 45 years of age. In conclusion, the risk of cancer was greater for patients infected later in life, particularly those with cirrhosis and high AFP. Annual screening of hemophiliacs with ultrasound and AFP fails to identify potentially curable tumors because the diagnosis is made at a late stage of the disease.
Neonatal hemolytic anemia due to inherited harderoporphyria: clinical characteristics and molecular basis.
Lamoril J. Puy H. Gouya L. Rosipal R. Da Silva V. Grandchamp B. Foint T. Bader-Meunier B. Dommergues JP. Deybach JC. Nordmann Y.
Centre Francais des Porphyries, INSERM U409, Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes, France.
Porphyrias, a group of inborn errors of heme synthesis, are classified as hepatic or erythropoietic according to clinical data and the main site of expression of the specific enzymatic defect. Hereditary coproporphyria (HC) is an acute hepatic porphyria with autosomal dominant inheritance caused by deficient activity of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (COX). Typical clinical manifestations of the disease are acute attacks of neurological dysfunction; skin photosensitivity may also be present. We report a variant form of HC characterized by a unifying syndrome in which hematologic disorders predominate: harderoporphyria. Harderoporphyric patients exhibit jaundice, severe chronic hemolytic anemia of early onset associated with hepatosplenomegaly, and skin photosensitivity. Neither abdominal pain nor neuropsychiatric symptoms are observed. COX activity is markedly decreased. In a first harderoporphyric family, with three affected siblings, a homozygous K404E mutation has been previously characterized. In the present study, molecular investigations in a second family with neonatal hemolytic anemia and harderoporphyria revealed two heterozygous point mutations in the COX gene. One allele bore the missense mutation K404E previously described. The second allele bore an A-->G transition at the third position of the donor splice site in intron 6. This new COX gene mutation resulted in exon 6 skipping and the absence of functional protein production. In contrast with other COX gene defects that produce the classical hepatic porphyria presentation, our data suggest that the K404E substitution (either in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state associated with a mutation leading to the absence of functional mRNA or protein) is responsible for the specific hematologic clinical manifestations of harderoporphyria.
Nonhepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma: a subset of cytotoxic lymphomas with mucosal or skin localization.
Arnulf B. Copie-Bergman C. Delfau-Larue MH. Lavergne-Slove A. Bosq J. Wechsler J. Wassef M. Matuchansky C. Epardeau B. Stern M. Bagot M. Reyes F. Gaulard P.
Departement de Pathologie and EA2348, Service d'Immunologie Biologique, CHU Henri Mondor, Cr-eteil, France.
Human gammadelta T lymphocytes represent a minor subset of T cells in the peripheral blood, which exhibit a limited diversity and a tissue-restricted repertoire in contrast to their broad specificity. Most postthymic neoplasms that arise from this T-cell subpopulation belong to the hepatosplenic gammadelta lymphoma entity. Only a few cases of nonhepatosplenic gammadelta lymphomas have been described in detail previously. This study presents the clinicopathologic features of 11 consecutive cases of nonhepatosplenic gammadelta lymphoma. All were characterized by mucosal or skin initial involvement: nasal cavity (n = 3), gastrointestinal tract (n = 3), skin (n = 3), lung (n = 1), larynx (n = 1). Most patients presented with B symptoms (eight of 11), without peripheral lymphadenopathy and bone marrow involvement. A past history of chronic antigen exposure was noted in six cases, and four patients had features of immune deficiency. On histology, they were classified as pleomorphic tumors. Features of epitheliotropism and angiocentrism was observed in most cases. Tumor cells had a CD2+, CD3+, T-cell receptor (TCR)delta-1+), betaF1- phenotype. They were CD5- (9 of 10) and CD4-/CD8- (9 of 10) or CD8+ (1 of 10). A clonal gamma-chain gene rearrangement was detected in all tested cases (9/9). All cases had an activated cytotoxic T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1)+, Granzyme B+ phenotype. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) sequences were detected in six cases by in situ hybridization (ISH). Despite an aggressive clinical course, complete remission was obtained in three patients, and one of the latter required a peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation. Nonhepatosplenic gammadelta peripheral T-cell lymphoma can be regarded as a model of activated cytotoxic lymphoma, occurring in mucosae or skin. These appear to be derived from the subpopulation of tissue-restricted gammadelta lymphocytes, which are involved in the host epithelial surface surveillance. The role of chronic antigen exposure in the pathogenesis of these rare lymphomas can be suggested, in view of the past history observed in at least some patients.
Haplotype HLA-B8-DR3 confers susceptibility to hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia.
Lenzi M. Frisoni M. Mantovani V. Ricci P. Muratori L. Francesconi R. Cuccia M. Ferri S. Bianchi FB.
Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Cardioangiologia, Epatologia, Istituto di Ematologia, Universita di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola, Bologna, Italia.
Our aim was to investigate whether host genetic factors are involved in the onset of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC). We studied 25 consecutive patients presenting with a full-blown clinical picture of MC by physical examination, blood chemistry, assessment of cryoglobulins and their composition, nonorgan-specific autoantibodies, antibodies to HCV, serum HCV RNA, and HLA polymorphism. Biopsies of liver, bone marrow, and minor salivary glands were also performed in a number of patients. HLA results were compared with those of normal controls and patients with chronic HCV infection without MC and negative for autoimmune phenomena (pathological controls). Type II MC was found in 14 of 25 patients (56%), and type III MC was found in the remaining 11 (44%). All patients were positive for antibodies to HCV and/or serum HCV RNA. HLA-B8 was found in 40% (10 of 25) of patients compared with 10. 1% (38 of 377) of normal controls (P = .00003, Pcorrected = .0005, relative risk [RR] 5.9) and 6.7% (2 of 30) of pathological controls (P = .007, Pcorrected = not significant). As for class II HLA molecules, only DR3 was significantly more frequent in MC patients (40%, 10 of 25) than in normal controls (15.1%, 57 of 377; P = .003, Pcorrected = .03, RR 3.7). Odds ratio (OR) for the risk of developing MC was calculated in patients positive for B8 and/or DR3, and the highest OR (8.2) was observed in individuals possessing both. The results suggest that the development of HCV-related MC is associated with HLA-B8 and DR3 markers.
Characteristic pattern of chromosomal gains and losses in primary large B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
Barth TF. Dohner H. Werner CA. Stilgenbauer S. Schlotter M. Pawlita M. Lichter P. Moller P. Bentz M.
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik V, Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
In contrast to low-grade B-cell lymphomas originating in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, only few cytogenetic data are available for the large cell, highly malignant variants. We studied 31 large B-cell lymphomas of the GI tract by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific DNA probes (FISH). The most frequent aberrations were gains of all or of parts of chromosomes 11 (11 cases), 12 (9 cases), 1q (4 cases), and 3q (4 cases). Losses of parts of chromosome 6q and of parts of the short arm of chromosome 17 (6 cases each) were found most frequently. In four cases a total of seven high-level DNA amplifications was detected. In two of these cases, involvement of specific protooncogenes (REL and MYC) was shown. Some genetic aberrations seemed to be associated with an inferior clinical course: patients with >/=2 aberrations had a significantly shorter median survival. Furthermore, all patients with gains of all or parts of chromosome arm 1q and with high-level DNA amplifications as well as seven of nine patients with gains of all or parts of chromosome 12 died of lymphoma. In conclusion, the pattern of chromosomal gains and losses in large B-cell lymphomas was different from data reported for low-grade (MALT) lymphomas of the stomach and bowel, especially with respect to the high incidence of partial gains of chromosome arm 11q and of all or parts of chromosome 12 and the low frequency of polysomy 3. In addition, our data suggest that chromosomal gains and losses detected by CGH and FISH may predict for the outcome of patients with this tumor entity.
Human hematopoietic progenitors express erythropoietin.
Stopka T. Zivny JH. Stopkova P. Prchal JF. Prchal JT.
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a factor essential for erythroid cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The production of EPO by the kidneys in response to hypoxia and anemia is well documented. To determine whether EPO is also produced by hematopoietic cells, we analyzed the expression of EPO in normal human hematopoietic progenitors and in their progeny. Undifferentiated CD34(+)lin- hematopoietic progenitors do not have detectable EPO mRNA. Differentiating CD34(+) cells that are stimulated with recombinant human EPO in serum-free liquid cultures express both EPO and EPO receptor (EPOR). Because CD34(+) cells represent a heterogeneous cell population, we analyzed individual burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E) and nonerythroid colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage colonies for EPO mRNA. Only BFU-E colonies were positive for EPO mRNA. Lysates from pooled BFU-E colonies stained positively for EPO by immunoblotting. To further confirm the intrinsic nature of erythroid EPO, we replaced extrinsic EPO in erythroid colony cultures with EPO-mimicking peptide (EMP). We show EPO expression in the EMP-stimulated BFU-Es at both mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) with EMP upregulated EPO expression. Furthermore, we found EPO and EPOR mRNAs as well as EPO protein in K562 cells, a human erythroleukemia cell line. Stimulation of K562 cells with EMP upregulated EPO expression. We suggest that EPO of erythroid origin may have a role in the regulation of erythropoiesis.
In vivo tropism of hepatitis C virus genomic sequences in hematopoietic cells: influence of viral load, viral genotype, and cell phenotype.
Lerat H. Rumin S. Habersetzer F. Berby F. Trabaud MA. Trepo C. Inchauspe G.
INSERM U271, Lyon, France.
Extrahepatic sites capable of supporting hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication have been suggested. We analyzed the influence of virological factors such as viral genotype and viral load, and cellular factors such as cell phenotype, on the detection rate of HCV sequences in hematopoietic cells of infected patients. Thirty-eight chronically infected patients were included in the study: 19 infected by genotype 1 isolates (1a and 1b), 13 by nongenotype 1 isolates (including genotypes 2 a/c, 3a, and 4), and 6 coinfected by genotype 1 and 6 isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection efficiency of viral genomic sequences, both the positive and negative strand RNA, was evaluated using RNA transcripts derived from genotype 1, 2, 3, and 4 cloned sequences and found to be equivalent within one log unit. The serum viral load, ranging from less than 2 x 10(5) Eq/mL to 161 x 10(5) Eq/mL, did not influence the detection rate of either strand of RNA in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Positive and negative strand RNA were found in PBMCs of all 3 cohorts of patients with a detection rate ranging from 15% to 100% and from 8% to 83.3% for the positive and negative strand RNA, respectively. Coinfected patients showed a detection rate in all cases greater than 80%. Patients infected with genotype 1 isolates showed a higher detection rate of either strands of RNA when compared with patients infected with other genotypes (P
Stable transduction of the interleukin-2 gene into human natural killer cell lines and their phenotypic and functional characterization in vitro and in vivo.
Nagashima S. Mailliard R. Kashii Y. Reichert TE. Herberman RB. Robbins P. Whiteside TL.
Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
A variety of strategies have been attempted in the past to stably transduce natural killer (NK) cells with cytokine or other cellular genes. Here, we demonstrate the successful delivery of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene into two human NK cell lines, IL-2-dependent NK-92 and IL-2-independent YT, by retroviral transduction. An MuLV-based retroviral vector expressing human IL-2 and neor markers from a polycistronic message was constructed and transduced into a CRIP packaging cell line. By coincubation of NK cells with monolayers of CRIP cells or by using retrovirus-containing supernatants in a flow-through method, 10% to 20% of NK cells were stably transduced. Upon selection in the presence of increasing G418 concentrations, transduced NK cells were able to proliferate independently of IL-2 for more than 5 months and to secrete up to 5.5 ng/10(6) cells/24 h of IL-2. IL-2 gene-transduced NK-92 cells had an in vitro cytotoxicity against tumor targets that was significantly higher than that of parental cells and secreted interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in addition to IL-2. Moreover, the in vivo antitumor activity of IL-2 gene-transduced NK-92 cells against established 3-day liver metastases in mice was greater than that of parental nontransduced NK cells. Stable expression of the IL-2 transgene in NK cells improved their therapeutic potential in tumor-bearing hosts. Thus, transduced NK cells secreted sufficient quantities of bioactive IL-2 to proliferate in vitro and mediated the antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo in the absence of exogenous IL-2. These results suggest that genetic modification of NK cells ex vivo could be useful for clinical cancer therapy in the future.
Biologically active Fas antigen and its cognate ligand are expressed on plasma membrane-derived extracellular vesicles.
Albanese J. Meterissian S. Kontogiannea M. Dubreuil C. Hand A. Sorba S. Dainiak N.
Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Exfoliation of plasma membrane components is a directed process that consumes energy and requires active cell metabolism. Proteins involved in regulating the survival and proliferation of eukaryotic cells are released on exfoliated vesicles. We examine here whether the Fas receptor and its cognate ligand (FasL) are present on vesicles shed from high metastatic potential CX-1 cells and low metastatic potential MIP-101 cells and from HuT 78 cells, respectively. Rates of exfoliation at 2 hours and cumulative levels of extracellular vesicles in serum-free medium conditioned by CX-1 cells are increased by 1.8-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively, relative to that in medium conditioned by MIP-101 cells. Although vesicles shed from both cancer cell lines contain Fas antigen, the amount of Fas per vesicle and the percentage of vesicles containing Fas are increased for vesicles isolated from MIP-101 cells, relative to those from CX-1 cells, as determined by immunogold particle labeling and electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Results of metabolic labeling with 35S-methionine indicate that Fas biosynthesis is reduced by up to 3.3-fold for CX-1 cells, relative to that of MIP-101 cells, consistent with the finding of decreased Fas on vesicles shed from the plasma membrane of CX-1 cells. Although mRNA for soluble Fas receptor is detectable in both cell lines, depletion of shed vesicles from serum-free medium by ultracentrifugation removes all detectable biological activity. FasL is detected on vesicles exfoliated from HuT 78 cells by immunoelectron microscopy and Western blot analysis. FasL-bearing vesicles induce apoptosis of Fas-expressing cancer cells at the same level as observed by treatment with monoclonal anti-Fas antibody. Furthermore, Fas-bearing extracellular vesicles from MIP-101 but not from CX-1 cells protect the CX-1 cell line from FasL-induced and anti-Fas-mediated apoptosis, indicating that Fas present on shed vesicles is biologically active. We conclude that the Fas antigen and its cognate ligand are exfoliated from the cell surface in a bioactive configuration. Exfoliation may provide a mechanism for long-range signal-directed apoptosis while maintaining Fas/FasL on a membrane surface.
Examination of ferrochelatase mutations that cause erythropoietic protoporphyria.
Sellers VM. Dailey TA. Dailey HA.
Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
Ferrochelatase (E.C. 22.214.171.124), the enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is the site of defect in the human inherited disease erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). Previously it has been demonstrated that patients with EPP may have missense mutations leading to amino acid substitutions, early chain termination, or exon deletions. While it has been clearly demonstrated that two missense mutations result in lowered enzyme activity, it has never been shown what effect specific exon deletions may have. In the current work, recombinant human ferrochelatase has been engineered to have individual exon deletions corresponding to exons 3 through 11. When expressed in Escherichia coli, none of these possesses significant enzyme activity and all lack the [2Fe-2S] cluster. One of the human missense mutations, F417S, and a series of amino acid replacements at this site (ie, F417W, F417Y, and F417L) were examined. With the exception of F417L, all lacked enzyme activity and did not contain the [2Fe-2S] cluster in vivo or as isolated in vitro.