Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-inducible or constitutive expression of human UDP glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A6.
Munzel PA. Lehmkoster T. Bruck M. Ritter JK. Bock KW.
Institute of Toxicology, University of Tubingen, Germany.
Transcriptional regulation of human UGT1A6, a UDP glucuronosyltransferase isoform conjugating a wide variety of planar phenols, has been studied using transfection experiments with plasmids containing its 3-kb 5' upstream region and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as reporter gene. Previously, two modes of expression of the isoform have been described: in colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells UGT1A6 was found to be TCDD-inducible, whereas in lung carcinoma A549 cells it was constitutively expressed. Therefore functional analysis of UGT1A6 regulation was carried out using these two cell lines. In the upstream region of human UGT1A6 one xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) was found between-1498 and -1502 bp. In Caco-2 cells the reporter gene activity of the entire plasmid and of deletion mutants containing the XRE were TCDD-inducible, in contrast to experiments with a deletion mutant which did not contain the XRE. TCDD induction was marginal in transfection studies with A549 cells. Gel mobility shift analysis indicated that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its partner Arnt bind to the XRE. Furthermore, primer extension studies suggest cell-specific use of multiple TATA boxes. Hence, regulation of human UGT1A6 appears to be cell-specific including both constitutive and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-controlled expression.
Attenuation of 19-9 antigen secretion in human colorectal carcinoma cell cultures by transfection with cDNA encoding novel ADP-ribosylation factor-like proteins.
Eboue D. Icard-Liepkalns C. Beringer TM. Liepkalns VA.
Biochemistry of Cellular Transport Laboratory, CNRS, University of Paris XI, Building 432, Orsay Cedex, 91405, France.
We have used cDNAs coding for novel ADP-ribosylation factor-like molecules (ARL184 and ARL184Delta) to alter 19-9 antigen glycoprotein secretion in cultured human colorectal carcinoma cells SW1116 by transfection and cloning. This ARL contains a lipophilic N-terminal with an isoleucyl and 3 leucyl residues, 4 functioning consensus sequence GTP binding sites, and 184 total aminoacyl residues. An ARL cDNA was also constructed deleting the codon for the N-terminal glycyl moiety. The resulting cell clones were shown by Northern blots to overexpress ARL mRNA. Electron microscopy-immunocytochemistry also indicated the overexpression of ARL granules subcellularly. Secretion of the tumor-associated 19-9 antigen into apical medium was decreased 3- to 5-fold and the secretion of TCA/PTA precipitable 3H-labeled glycoprotein was decreased by 34% in clone SW1116(ARL184)Delta. Western blot analyses of cell homogenates and media were in agreement with the secretion assays and showed a diminution of 170-200 kDa, 19-9, antigenicity in transfected cells and their media. Apical secretion of 19-9 antigen was diminished 14-fold in cells, SW1116 (ARL184)alpha, transfected with the complete ARL cDNA sequence, suggesting that the glycyl moiety may be required for maximal abatement. However, incorporation of label from [3H]myristate into 22-kDa bands of NP-40 extracts and ARL-antigenic molecules of parent cells was 3-fold greater than that in samples from the two transfectants; thus the transfected cells may not myristylate the overexpressed ARL efficiently. Notwithstanding the N-terminal glycyl moiety undergoing some other modification, we conclude that overexpression of this ARL is sufficient to generate a 19-9-deficient phenotype. These ARLs may eventually disrupt terminal oligosaccharide glycosylation, resulting in an apparent diminished exocytosis of 19-9 glycoprotein carriers by transfected and cloned cells.