Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae in the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis.
Moller LV. Regelink AG. Grasselier H. van Alphen L. Dankert J.
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, The Netherlands.
We analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae isolates from 157 sputum specimens prospectively collected from 39 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients during a 2-year study. These isolates were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) analysis to identify H. influenzae strains and MOMP variants and to assess their persistence in the respiratory tract. Among the 247 H. influenzae isolates, 16 (6.5%) produced beta-lactamase. The 231 beta-lactamase-negative isolates represented 85 H. influenzae strains, 61 MOMP variants derived from 27 of these strains, and 85 persistent isolates identical to strains or MOMP variants. All beta-lactamase-negative isolates were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefaclor, imipenem, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by disk diffusion testing. Eleven (13%) H. influenzae strains, 18 (30%) MOMP variants, and 30 (35%) persistent isolates were resistant to one or more of the antibiotics tested. Antimicrobial susceptibility was decreased among MOMP variants and persistent isolates compared to nonpersistent H. influenzae strains, and changes in susceptibility occurred irrespective of MOMP variation. We conclude that the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of H. influenzae during persistence contributes to the poor eradication of H. influenzae from the respiratory tracts of CF patients.
Antibiotic susceptibility of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from an outbreak in Japan in 1996.
Tsuboi I. Ida H. Yoshikawa E. Hiyoshi S. Yamaji E. Nakayama I. Nonomiya T. Shigenobu F. Shimizu M. O'Hara K. Sawai T. Mizuoka K.
BML General Laboratory, Saitama, Japan.
The antibiotic susceptibilities of 43 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 identified in the summer of 1996 in Japan were investigated. Growth of 90% of O157 strains was inhibited at a concentration of < or = 0.5 micro/ml by several agents including fosfomycin with glucose-6-phosphate.
Cyclosporin analogs inhibit in vitro growth of Cryptosporidium parvum.
Perkins ME. Wu TW. Le Blancq SM.
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cyclosporine and nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporin (CS) analogs were demonstrated to be potent inhibitors of the growth of the intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium parvum in short-term (48-h) in vitro cultures. Fifty-percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were 0.4 microM for SDZ 033-243, 1.0 microM for SDZ PSC-833, and 1.5 microM for cyclosporine. Two other analogs were less effective than cyclosporine: the IC50 of SDZ 205-549 was 5 microM, and that of SDZ 209-313 was 7 microM. These were much lower than the IC50 of 85 microM of paromomycin, a standard positive control for in vitro drug assays for this parasite. In addition, intracellular growth of excysted sporozoites that had been incubated for 1 h in cyclosporine was significantly reduced, suggesting that the drug can inhibit sporozoite invasion. The cellular activities of the CS analogs used have been characterized for mammalian cells and protozoa. The two analogs that were most active in inhibiting C. parvum, SDZ PSC-833 and SDZ 033-243, bind weakly to cyclophilin, a peptidyl proline isomerase which is the primary target of cyclosporine and CS analogs. However, they are potent modifiers of the activity of the P glycoproteins/ multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters, members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Hence, both cyclophilin and some ABC transporters may be targets for this class of drugs, although drugs that preferentially interact with the latter are more potent. Cyclosporine (0.5 microM) had no significant chemosensitizing activity. That is, it did not significantly increase sensitivity to paromomycin, suggesting that an ABC transporter is not critical in the efflux of this drug. Cyclosporine at concentrations up to 50 microM was not toxic to host Caco-2 cells in the CellTiter 96 assay. The results of this study complement those of studies of the inhibitory effect of cyclosporine and CS analogs on other apicomplexan parasites, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Toxoplasma gondii.