Emergency stenting of malignant obstruction of the upper airways: long-term follow-up with two types of silicone prostheses.
Wassermann K. Eckel HE. Michel O. Muller RP.
Department of Otolaryngology, University of Cologne, Germany.
We report on 10 patients with severe malignant "mixed-type" obstruction of the proximal trachea or distal trachea plus both main stem bronchi. They had far-advanced inoperable tumors (esophageal cancer in 4 patients, lung cancer in 3, and recurrent laryngeal, uvular, and thyroid cancers in 1 each). Emergency treatment consisted of a dilating bougie maneuver followed by the insertion of a large one-way (4 patients) or Y-shaped (6) silicone prosthesis. Subsequent to the intervention, there was long-lasting clinical improvement. The median survival from stent insertion was 8 months for all patients irrespective of tumor type; it was 5 months for lung carcinoma patients and 8 months for those with esophageal cancer. The results are in accordance with those of other studies using different therapeutic modalities. Stent exchange proved necessary in 5 patients. The main reasons were continuing tumor growth beyond the proximal and distal boundaries and recurrent productive bronchial infection. Patients died of pneumonia (4 patients), pulmonary lymphangitic spread (1), heart failure (2, one of whom also had pneumonia), and fatal hemorrhage (1). As of December 1995, 3 patients were still alive, 2, 5, and 8 months after stent implantation. As evidenced by clinical efficacy and length of palliation, endoscopic placement of silicone-based one-way and bifurcated prostheses in far-advanced tumor of the central airways is technically feasible and ethically justifiable.
FEESST: a new bedside endoscopic test of the motor and sensory components of swallowing.
Aviv JE. Kim T. Sacco RL. Kaplan S. Goodhart K. Diamond B. Close LG.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.
We here introduce an office or bedside method of evaluating both the motor and sensory components of swallowing, called fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing (FEESST). FEESST combines the established endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with a technique that determines laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory discrimination thresholds by endoscopically delivering air pulse stimuli to the mucosa innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. Endoscopic assessment of LP sensory capacity followed by endoscopic visualization of deglutition was prospectively performed 148 times on 133 patients with dysphagia over an 8-month period. The patients had a variety of underlying diagnoses, with stroke and chronic neurologic disease predominating (n = 94). Subsequent to LP sensory testing, a complete dysphagia evaluation was conducted. Various food and liquid consistencies were dyed green, and attention was paid to their management throughout the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Evidence of latent swallow initiation, pharyngeal pooling and/or residue, laryngeal penetration, laryngeal aspiration, and/or reflux was noted. Recommendations for therapeutic intervention were based on information obtained during the FEESST and often involved the employment of compensatory swallowing strategies, modification of the diet or its presentation, placement on non-oral feeding status, and/or referral to other related specialists. All patients successfully completed the examination. In 111 of the evaluations (75%), severe (>6.0 mm Hg air pulse pressure [APP]) unilateral or bilateral LP sensory deficits were found. With puree consistencies, 31% of evaluations with severe deficits, compared to 5% of evaluations with either normal sensitivity or moderate (4.0 to 6.0 mm Hg APP) LP sensory deficits, displayed aspiration (p < .001, chi2 test). With puree consistencies, 69% of evaluations with severe deficits, compared to 24% with normal or moderate deficits, displayed laryngeal penetration (p < .001, chi2 test). FEESST allows the clinician to obtain a comprehensive bedside assessment of swallowing that is performed as the initial swallowing evaluation for the patient with dysphagia.