Laser-induced fluorescence for esophageal cancer and dysplasia diagnosis.
Vo-Dinh T. Panjehpour M. Overholt BF.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
A method using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for in vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus is described. Autofluorescence of normal and malignant tissues was measured directly using a fiberoptic probe inserted through an endoscope. The measurements were performed in vivo during routine endoscopy. Measurement of the fluorescence signal from the tissue was performed using laser excitation at 410 nm. The methodology was applied to differentiate normal and malignant tumors of the esophagus. The results of this LIF approach were compared with histopathology results of the biopsy samples and indicated excellent agreement in the classification of normal and malignant tumors for the samples investigated. The LIF procedure could lead to the development of a rapid and cost-effective technique for cancer diagnosis.
Neuroimmunomodulation in inflammatory bowel disease. How far from bench to bedside?
Anton PA. Shanahan F.
IBD Clinical and Research Center, Department of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA. email@example.com
The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (BID), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterized by recurrent periods of inflammation and tissue destruction. The clinical course is influenced by genetics, environmental factors, and the immune system. Recent insights (bench trials) benefiting from advances in genetic engineering and molecular biology have contributed to clinical care (bedside) in terms of actual or potential therapies. Does the neuroendocrine system significantly modify disease activity? Although conceptually appealing, evidence remains circumstantial. Compelling anecdotal reports exist that "stress" affects disease activity in terms of the frequency and severity of IBD flares (bedside), but the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. Evidence that neuroendocrine factors play a significant role in immunomodulation is progressing (bench). (i) Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB)-induced colitis, although similar in unstressed Fisher and Lewis rats, shows marked worsening in stressed Lewis rats. (ii) Early studies of rectal pain perception suggest there are specific differences in neuroimaging studies (PET scans) in IBD patients compared to controls. (iii) Levels of substance P (SP) and its receptor are altered. (iv) Preliminary clinical studies with SP receptor antagonists show a trend toward improvement. (v) Importantly, the placebo response in clinical trials is as high as 45%. Evidence that neuroendocrine systems significantly modulate local inflammation is rapidly accumulating (bench), which will facilitate enhanced coordination of clinically relevant therapies (bedside).