An abnormal distribution of delta F508 genotypes in cystic fibrosis patient registries.
Feingold J. Guilloud-Bataille M. De Crozes D.
Unite de Recherches d'Epidemiologie Genetique, INSERM Unite 155, Universite Paris 7, France.
Delta F508 mutation of the CFTR gene is the most frequent deleterious allele involved in cystic fibrosis (CF). We have studied the distribution of the three genotypes, delta F508/delta F508, delta F508/x, x/x, in the American, Canadian and French data registries concerning CF; "x" represents the non-delta F508 mutations. In the three registries the observed distribution of the three genotypes differs from the expected one, calculated according to the Hardy and Weinberg equilibrium. Three factors could explain this discrepancy: Wahlund's effect, misinterpretation of the molecular diagnosis, or an ascertainment bias in relation with the severity of the disease. This last factor is the most likely.
Study of Down syndrome in 238,942 consecutive births.
Stoll C. Alembik Y. Dott B. Roth MP.
Service de Genetique Medicale, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Hopital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France.
The genetics and the epidemiology of Down syndrome (DS) was studied in the area which is covered by our registry of congenital malformations. For each of the 398 new DS cases which were ascertained during the period 1979 to 1996 more than 50 factors were studied and compared to those from control infants. The prevalence of DS was 1.66 per 1000; 2.2% of the DS cases were stillbirths and 29.4% were induced abortions. Karyotypes were obtained in 391 cases of which all but 23 were 47,+21;9 were mosaics (2.3%), and 14 had translocations (3.6%). Interchromosomal effect was a question in 7 cases. The most common types of associated malformations were cardiac anomalies (46.2%) and intestinal atresias (6.0%). Seasonality or time/space clusters were not observed in spite of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. No paternal age effect was demonstrated; 5.3% of the mothers of DS had 2 previous spontaneous abortions (controls 3.7% p < 0.05). At birth, the DS infants measured and weighted less and their head circumference was lower than in control infants. Weight of placenta was also lower than in control infants. In this material there were 4.5% of consanguineous marriages (P < 0.01). The pregnancies of the DS children were more often complicated by threatened abortions than in the controls, 3.2% of the mothers of the DS children were diabetic controls (1.7%), although the difference was not statistically significant. For all other factors studied no statistically significant difference with respect to controls could be demonstrated.