Alcohol consumption and micronutrient intake as risk factors for liver cirrhosis: a case-control study. The Provincial Group for the study of Chronic Liver Disease.
Corrao G. Torchio P. Zambon A. D'Amicis A. Lepore AR. di Orio F.
Institute of Statistical and Mathematical Sciences, University of Milan, Italy. email@example.com
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of alcohol consumption and intake of 15 selected micronutrients with risk of liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Data from a case-control study performed in 1989-1990 in central Italy involving 115 incident cases and 167 hospital controls were used. RESULTS: Cases and controls did not differ for mean daily intake of calories, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Significant direct dose-response relationships between the intakes of vitamin A and iron and the risk cirrhosis were observed, while significant protective effects were obtained for the intakes of vitamins B2 (riboflavin) and B12. Different patterns of the joint effect of nutrients and alcohol were also observed. The intakes of vitamin A and iron were significantly associated with the risk of cirrhosis in lifetime teetotalers (odds ratios (OR) and 95% coincidence intervals (CI) of 33.6 (1.2-979.9) and 37.9 (1.8-819.4) for higher intake of vitamin A and iron, respectively) and in consumers of < 50 g/day of alcohol (vitamin A: OR 45.0; 95% CI, (2.6-774.6); iron: OR, 73.6; 95% CI, 4.3-999). The OR associated with intakes of vitamins B2 (riboflavin) and B12 were not significant for the first two categories of alcohol use, while a higher intake of these two vitamins reduced the risk of cirrhosis associated with alcohol consumption above 50 g/day; the ORs (95% CI) were 23.0 (2.7-198.9) and 104.4 (7.2-999), respectively, for higher and lower intakes of riboflavin and 12.8 (1.8-88.1) and 138.4 (14.0-999), respectively, for higher and lower intake of vitamin B12. CONCLUSION: These findings might explain at least a portion of the individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver damage.